J Crit Rev, Vol 2, Issue 1, 7-19 Review Article


AN OVERVIEW ON INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA

VEENA SHARMA*, URMILA CHAUDHARY

Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University Niwai, Tonk, Rajasthan, 304022
Email: drvshs@gmail.com

Received: 05 Oct 2014 Revised and Accepted: 23 Dec 2014


ABSTRACT

Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae family) a medicinal plant is found throughout India as an annual herb. In this plant many antioxidants like alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins etc. of various pharmacological properties are present. Many chemical constituents have also been isolated from this plant by various techniques. All chemical constituents and pharmacological properties are responsible for the treatment of various human disorders. In the present review, complete updated information about Achyranthes aspera pharmacological, phytochemical and ethnobotanical uses is provided. The above information about A. aspera may be helpful to researchers in further research.

Keywords: Achyranthes aspera, Anticancer, Antioxidants, Medicinal plants.


INTRODUCTION

Herbal medicine has a long history in treatment of several diseases [1]. Medicinal herbs are used to treat illness, maintain and promote health[2]and are the only available and inexpensive source of primary health care, especially in the absence of access to modern medical facilities. Various plant parts (leaves, stems, root and bark) are used for medicine preparation, because they contain biologically active ingredients, for treating mild or chronic ailments. Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds are the most important bioactive constituents of plant. Sometimes they are also added to foods of pregnant and nursing mothers for medicinal purposes [3]. Now-a-days pills, capsules, powders or in more concentrated liquid form called extracts and tincture forms of herbal medicines are also available. These can also be used topically in creams or applied directly to the skin [4]. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (family- Amaranthaceae) is commonly known as Latjira in Hindi. It is an erect stiff medicinal plant. The plant is used by traditional healers for the treatment of dysentery, fever and diabetes [5]. A. aspera is available as weed in whole India, Asia and many parts of the world such as Mexico, Central America and Africa [6]. It is described as bitter, pungent, purgative, heating, laxative, stomachic, carminative and digestive and is useful for the treatment of bronchitis, heart maladies, piles, itching abdominal problems, ascites, rheumatism, abdominal enlargement, rabies and for enlarged cervical gland [7-8]. The aim of present review is to provide entire available information regarding pharmacology and ethnobotanical uses of A. aspera.

History and Origin

Two varieties of A. aspera, red and white are mentioned in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicines. Achyranthes aspera as a rough flowered stalk is described as in Sanskrit synonyms. It is described in 'Nighantas' as pungent, purgative, digestive, and a remedy for inflammation of the internal organs, itch, piles, abdominal enlargements and enlarged cervical glands. The diuretic property of the plant was well known to the natives of India and European physicians. Various plant parts form ingredients in many native prescriptions were used in combination with more active remedies.

The plant is globally available as a medicinal weed in Baluchistan, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, Australia and America. It is reported as an invasive alien species in northern Bangladesh. It is also found to be the most prevalent weed in Shivbari, Himachal Pradesh and an exotic medicinal herb of district, Lalitpur (Uttar Pradesh), India [9]. Throughout India A. aspera is found in field boundaries, road sides and waste places as a medicinal herb.

Synonyms [10]

  • Achyranthes argentea Lam.
  • A. aspera var. indica L.
  • A. aspera var. obtusifolia (Lam.) Suess.
  • Achyranthes indica (L.) Mill.
  • Achyranthes obtusifolia Lam.

Scientific taxonomic classification-

  • Kingdom - Plantae
  • Subkingdom - Tracheobinota
  • Super Division - Spermatophyta
  • Division - Mangoliophyta
  • Class - Mangoliophsida
  • Subclass - Caryophyllidae
  • Order - Caryophyllales
  • Family - Amaranthaceae
  • Genus - Achyranthes
  • Species - aspera

Common names of A. aspera [9,11]

  • African vernacular names:Swahili- Turura, Sotho-Bohomane, Bohome-bo-bolek, Mo-tswarak-gano, Belgian Congo-Denge, Gnegna, Kalambata, Lenge, Lenamo.
  • Arabian - Atkumah, Na´eem, No´eim, Mahout, Wazer (Yemen)
  • Ayurvedic - Apamarga, Chirchita, Shikhari, Shaikharika
  • Bengali - Apaang.
  • English - Prickly chaff flower, Hawai chaff flower, Devil´s horse whip, Prickly chaff flower
  • French - Achyranth a feuilles rudes, Collant, Gendarme
  • Gujarati - Safad Aghedo, Anghadi, Andhedi, Agado.
  • Hindi - Latjira, Chirchira, Lamchichra, Sonpur, Onga.
  • Indonesia - Jarong.
  • Kannada - Uttaranee, Utame.
  • Latin - A. aspera
  • Malayalam - Kadaladi, Vankadaladi, Katalati.
  • Marathi - Aghada, Pandhara-aghada.
  • Other - Pululue, Panga za wayuka, Crokars staff burweed
  • Persian - Khare-vazhun
  • Philippins (Tagalog) - Hangod
  • Punjabi - Kutri
  • Sanskrit - Aghata, Apamargah, Mayoorah, Markatapippalee, Durgrahan, Khara-manjari.
  • Sinhala- Karalheba.
  • Spanish - Mosotillo, Rabo de gato, Rabo de chango, Rrabo de raton.
  • Swahili- Shiru-kadaladi
  • Tamil - Shiru-kadaladi, Nayuruvi
  • Telugu– Uttaraene, Utareni, Aduchinnike, Antisha, Pamargamu, Uttaraene.
  • Unani – Chirchitaa

Habitat

The plant can grow in absence of shade or in semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil but prefers light sandy, medium loamy, heavy clay soils for its growth [12]. It grows as wasteland herb everywhere. Flowers appear from July to September and seeds ripe in the month of October.

Botanical description

(a). Macroscopic information [9,13-14]

A. aspera is a stiff erect herb.

  • Height- 0.2-2.0 m high. The base is woody, angular or ribbed, simple or branched, nodes are bulged, often tinged with pink color.
  • Root - Cylindrical root, 0.1-1.0 cm in thickness, slightly ribbed, gradually tapering, yellowish-brown in color, secondary and tertiary roots present.
  • Stem - Square, yellowish-brown, branched, hairy, erect, cylindrical, solid, and hollow when dry.
  • Leaf - Simple, subsessile, slightly acuminate estipulate, wavy margin ovovate, petiolate or elliptic, ovate or broadly rhomate, opposite, decussate, and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. 5-22 cm long with 2-5 cm broad. Occur in various sizes. Type of stomata are present on the lower epidermis is anomocytic.
  • Flower - Arranged in long spikes form in inflorescences, 8-30 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, bisexual greenish-white, numerous, sessile, bracteate with two bracteoles, one spine lipped, actinomorphic, hypogynous, 5 perianth segments, membranous, 5 stamens, short filament, anther, two celled, 7 gynoecium bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, single ovule; style, single stigma, white or red flower. Flowers appear during summer.
  • Fruit - An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within bracteoles, persistent, and perianth.
  • Seed- These are round at the base, sub-cylindric, truncate at the apex, endospermic, brown coloured.
  • Chromosome no:  Polyploidy A. aspera naturally occurring was reported. Sporophytic count was noticed (Punjab, India, Cameroon Mountain and New Zealand)[15-17] Gametophytic count was to be 21[18],24 and 48 [15,19].

Properties and action

  • Fruits
  • Rasa-Madhura
  • Guna- Rooksha, Sara
  • Virya- Seeta
  • Roots
  • Rasa- Tikta, Katu
  • Guna- Teekshna, Sara
  • Virya- Ushna

Phytochemistry of plant

Achyranthes aspera possess various phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and saponin [20, 21]. These are responsible for various purposes and are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Enlisted various chemical phyto-constituents of A. aspera Linn

Plant

Part

Compound Family

Active Ingredient

References

Whole plant

Saponins

  1. Ecdysterone
  2. 20-hydroxy- ecdysone

[22-23]

Alkaloid

Betaine (C5H11O2)

[24]

Arial Part

 

  1. Three bisdesmosidic saponins (I-III)
  2. 20-hydroxyecdysone
  3. Quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactoside

[25]

 

Triterpenoid Saponins

  1. β-D-glucopyranosyl-13- β-[O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyloxy] marchaerinate
  2. β-D-glucopyranosyl-13- β-[O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-α-Dglucopyranuronosyloxy] machaerinate

[26]

Shoots

Ketons

  1. 36,37-dihydroxyhenpentacontan-4-one
  2. Triacontanol
  3. 36,47-dihydroxyhenpentacontan-4- one

[27-29]

Long chain compounds

  1. 27-cyclohexyl-heptacosan-7-Ol
  2. 16-hydroxy-26-methylhepta-cosan-2-One

[30]

 

Aliphatic alcohol

17-penta triacontanol

[31]

 

  1. Tetra-contanol- C40H82O
  2. 4-methoxyheptatriacont-1-en-10-ol (C38H76O)
  3. β-sitosterol

[32]

Stems

 

  1. Pentatriacontane
  2. 6- penta-tri-acontanone
  3. Hexa-triacontane
  4. Tritriacontane

[29,33]

Leaves & Stems

Saponins

  1. 20-hydroxy ecdysone
  2. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside

[25]

Bisdesmosidic triterpenoid-saponins

[26]

Leaves

Compound of volatile oil

  1. P-benzoquinone;
  2. Hydroquinone
  3. Spathulenol
  4. Nerol
  5. α-ionone
  6. Asarone
  7. Eugenol

[34]

Seeds

Sapogenin

Sapogenins along with oleanolic acid

[35]

Saponin-A

Saponin-B

D-Glucuronic acid

β-D-galactopyranosyl ester of D-Glucuronic acid

[33,36]

 

  1. Oleanolic acid
  2. Amino acid
  3. Hentriacontane

[33,36]

 

  1. 10-tricosanone
  2. 10-octacosanone
  3. 4-tritriacontanone

[29,33]

Cyclic chain aliphatic fatty acid (I)

 

[37]

Fatty acid composition

Lauric, Myristi, Palmitia, Stearic, Arachidic

Behenic, Oleic and linoleic acid

[38]

Oleonolic acid glycosides

  1. α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-(β-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-oleanolic acid
  2. α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-(β-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
  3. α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-(β-D-glucopyranosyluroni c acid)-(1→3)-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside

[39]

Roots

Saponins

Ecdysterone

[40-41]

Saponins

Ecdysone

[27-29]

 

Oleanolic acid

[29-35]

Aliphatic acid

  1. n-Hexacos-14-enoic acid (NI-III)
  2. Strigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-β-ol (NI-I)
  3. Trans-13-docasenoic acid (NI-II)
  4. n-hexacosanyl n-decaniate (NI-IV)
  5. n-Hexacos-17-enoic acid (NI-V)
  6. n-Hexacos-11-enoic acid

[42]

 

Fruits

Saponin-C and D

 

[29,43]

Gall & normal tissues

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Phenols
  4. Enzymes

 

[44]

 

Pharmacological properties

Achyranthes aspera possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-obesity, anti-spasmodia, anti-allergic, anti-arthritic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-dandruff, antidepressant, anti-fertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-microbial anti-oxidant, anti-parasitic, anti-sparsmodic, anti-viral, bronchoprotective, cardiovascular, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypoglyceamic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, nephro- protective, prothyrodic, renal disorder, spermicidal, wound healing anti-oedematic and anti-diarrhoeic activities [9,11,45-48]. Various pharmacological and biological experiments are performed with the A. aspera and it shows both positive and negative results and these are summarized in table 2 and table 3 respectively.

Table 2: Positive results of pharmacological and biological activities of Achyranthes aspera Linn

Activities

Plant part

Extracts

Methods/ Parameters studied

Experimental subject/object

Standard/Compound

References

Anti-asthmatic

WP

AL

DLC, LPO, SOD, GSH, TP and Histology

Wistar rats

Dexamethasone/ Toluene-Di-Isocyanate

[49]

Analgesic and Anti-pyretic

LF

MET

Hot plate and brewer’s yeast induced method

_

Aspirin

[50]

Analgesic

SD LF

AL

Hot plate and Writhing test

Mice

Pentazocin

[51]

Hot plate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing response method

Male albino rats

Aspirin

[52]

LF

ETH

Tail Flick Response Method, Hot Plate Method and Formalin Test

Wistar albino mice

Pentazocine and Aspirin

[53]

Analgesic and CNS depressant

AP

MET

Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Test, Thiopental sodium induced sleeping time determination, Hole cross test, Open field test

Swiss Albino mice

Diclofenac sodium (50mg/kg)

[54]

Anthelmintic

St

MET, AQ

Anthelmintic activity

PP

Albendazole

[55]

Anti-cataract

LF

AQ

Lens opacity, TP, LH, LPO, Inhibition of Cu2+ induced lipoproteindiene formation, Ca2+-ATPase activity, SOD, CAT, GSSH, GPx, GSH

Fresh goat eyeballs

Vitamin E and Glucose 55 mM (compound)

[56]

Anti corrosion

LF

H2SO4

Gravimetric technique

Steel

0.5 M H2SO4

[57]

Antipyretic

Achyranthine isolated compound

Dilation of the blood vessels, Blood pressure

Rats

_

[58]

LF

MET

Brewer’s yeast- induced pyrexia

Rats

_

[59]

Anti-obesity

SD

As a Obeloss drug powder

Triglycerides, cholesterol, weight, body mass index, arm circumference, thigh circumference, hip circumference, chest circumference, nape of neck, abdomen circumference

Humans

_

[60]

SD

ETH

α-Amylase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory activity, Triacylglycerol level, and Obesity determination

Male Swiss albino mice

_

[61]

Anti-allergic

PE

Milk induced leukocytes and milk induced eosinophilia

Mice

_

[62]

Anti-arthritic

ETH

Carrageenan and Freund's complete adjuvant model

Mice and rats

_

[63]

Anti-carcinogenic

LF

MET

Epstein-Barr virus early antigen

Raji cells

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

[64]

LF

BUT, HEX, PE, CH, AQ

Toxicity analysis, T cell count, Tail length

Swiss albino mice

Mineral oil

[65]

RT

AQ, MET

MTT, DNA Fragmentation, Apoptosis, Assessment of Morphological Alterations, Anti-proliferation Assay

NRK-52E cell line

_

[66]

WP

ETH

ALT, AST, GGT, Bilirubin, GPx, GST, GSH, LPO, SOD, CAT, Histology

Swiss albino rats (liver)

CCl4 and N-nitro-sodiethylamine

[67]

Anti-dandruff

LF

MET

_

_

_

[68]

Anti-depressant

LF

MET

Forced swimming and tail suspension tests

Mice and rats

Desipramine hydrochloride

[69]

Anti-diabetic

WP

ETH

BSL, triglyceride, TC and Histology

Wistar albino rats

Alloxan

[70]

LF

ETH

Blood glucose level

Rats

Streptozotocin/ Glibenclamide

[71]

AP

AQ

Glucose, glycogen, plasma Insulin, Glycosylated hemoglobin, Glucokinase, Glucose-6-phosphatase, Glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase, TP, GSH, LPO

Wistar strain of albino rats

Alloxan/ Glibenclamide

[72]

Anti feedant and insecticidal

LF

HEX, CH, EA

Insecticidal and antifeedant Activity

Epilachna Beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata

_

[73]

Anti-fertility

RT

ETH

Sperm motility, sperm count, lipids, cholesterol, hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase, glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Δ5-3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

Male albino rats

_

[74]

LF

MET

Abortifacient, estrogenicity,

pituitary weight and lipid profile

Female Wistar rats

_

[75]

RT

CH, ETH

Post coital anti-fertility testing, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity Histology

Female albino rats

Ethinly estradiol

[76]

St

BEN, CH

Laparotomy

Swiss albino mice

_

[77]

Ash

Fecundity, fertility, developmental time, ovarioles number

D. melanogaster flies

_

[78]

RT

ETH

Post coital anti-fertility testing, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity

Albino Wistar rats

Ethinyl estradiol

[79]

Antiovulatory & Anti- implantation

RT

ETH

Strous cycle phases determination, anti-implantation activity

Virgin female rats

_

[80]

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritic

Achyranthine a isolated compound

Carrageenan-induced paw edema, granuloma pouch, formaldehyde and adjuvant induced arthritis

Albino rats

Betamethasone, Phenylbutasone

[81]

RT

AL

Carrageenan-induced paw edema method cotton pellet granuloma test

Wistar rats

_

[82]

LF

ETH, HEX, EA

carrageenan induced paw oedema

Wistar rats

Indomethacin

[83]

LF

MET

Histology, Disease Activity Index, MPO and MDA

Wistar albino rats, Mice

Sulfasalazine 5-ASA

[84]

LF

W P

AQ

Carrageenan-induced paw edema

Swiss albino mice

Diclofenac

[85]

WP

AL

Hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models

Swiss albino male rats

Diclofenac sodium

[86]

LF

MET, CH, EA, HEX, BUT, AQ

Rate paw edema, In vitro anti-inflammatory activityand Carrageenan induced hind paw edema

Male Wistar rats

Baicalein Piroxicam gel

[87-88]

SD LF

AL

Chronic inflammatory and Acute inflammatory studies

Wistar Albino rats or Swiss mice

Diclofenac

[51]

Anti-lithiatic

RT

AQ

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), SEM, XRD, FTIR

_

_

[89]

Anti-microbial

LF SD

AQ, ETH

Cup plate method/ cup diffusion method

EC, SA,CA

Ofloxacin, Amikacin, Norfloxacin, Roxithromycin, Gentamycin

[90]

LF

MET

Agar well diffusion method

SA, BS

Ciproflaxocin Piperacillin

[91]

LF

Silver nano particles of AQ extract

Agar well diffusion assay method

PA, SA, EC, CA

Amikacin and fluconazole

[92]

LF

MET

HPLC, Agar diffusion method, challenge test and Parrallel streak method

EC, SA

_

[93]

LF

MET, ETH

Agar well diffusion method

CA, CT, CK CKE, CG, CGL, CN, AN, AF, AFL, RO

Ketoconazole and
Itraconazole

[94]

RT

ETH, ACT, EA

Paper disc diffusion

BS, SA, ST, EC, PA, SAB

Ampicillin

[95]

WP

AQ, ETH

Dilution method

BAC, SAL, EC

_

[96]

MET, CH

Dilution method

BAC, CIT KLB, SAL, EC

St

HEX, CH, EA, MET

Agar well cut diffusion technique

SA

_

[97]

HEX, EA

Agar well cut diffusion technique

EC

RT IF

HEX, CH, EA, MET

Agar well cut diffusion technique

SA, EC

LF

HEX, CH, MET

Agar well cut diffusion technique

SA

CH, EA, MET

Agar well cut diffusion technique

EC

LF

PE, EA, CH, MET, ETH

MIC, Disc-diffusion assay

PA, PM, EF.

Ampicillin

[98]

St

PE, EA, CH, MET, ETH

MIC, Disc-diffusion assay

PA, PM

LF

ETH

Agar well-diffusion assay and MIC

PA, SA, ML, EC

Streptomycin

[99]

SD

MET, EA, PE, ACT

Disc diffusion method, MIC

XC, EC, KP, BSB, SL

Nalidixic acid

[100]

SD

ETH, CH

_

EC, BS, PA

_

[101]

St
RT

PE, CH, MET, AQ

Agar well-diffusion method, well plate assay

SA, SP, EC, ST, PF,, AFL, AN, MG, TR, TM

Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Ketoconazol

[102]

AP

MET, EA, AQ

MIC

PM, PV, SA,
ML, BC, CS,
MS, KP, ST,
SF, VP, PA, BP, SE, EC, SC

_

[103]

 

MET

Well method

EC, BC, AB, SA, PA, KP, PM, SAL

_

[8]

WP

Isolated saponnin

Microdilution

SA

_

[104]

LF

AQ, ETH

Agar diffusion method and MIC

BS, SA, PA,

Ciprofloxacin

[105]

RT AP

ETH

Disc diffusion method

BS, BP, PV AFL, CN

Clotrimazole

[106]

LF

MET, EA, AQ, CH

Disc diffusion method

EC, PA, KP, BS, ML, SA

_

[107]

SD

Volatile oil

Disc diffusion method

SA, SP, BS, ML, PA, EC, ST, PV, CA, AN, AFL, CG, TM

_

[108]

LF IN

PE, EA, AQ, BEN, CH, ETH

MIC

EC, BC, SE, SF, PA

_

[48]

LF

AQ, ETH, HEX

Well and disc diffusion method.

EC, PM, ST, Ea, AN

Streptomycin Chloramphenical, Fluconazole

[109]

LF

MET

Disc diffusion test, MIC

SA, SI, EC, KP, SA, SAG, SDY, DC

Gentamycin

[110]

RT, St

PE, CH, MET, AQ

Plate assay method

BS, KLB, EC, SH, FU, HT

_

[111]

LF

CH, MET

Agar diffusion method

BS, SP, EC, KP, PA

Ampicillin

[112]

Anxiolytic

LF

MET

Hole board, Elevated plus maze, Light/dark exploration and open field test

Male Swiss Albino Mice

_

[113]

LF

MET

Hole board, Open field, Elevated plus maze and Light/dark exploration test

Male Swiss albino mice

Diazepam

[114]

LF

ETH

Neuropharmacological study, Rota-rod performance, Actophotometer and Open field test

Wistar albino mice

Diazepam (2 mg/kg i. p.)

[115]

Anti-
oxidant

IF, RT

PE, BEN, CH, EA, ETH, AQ

TAC, DPPH, FRAP

_

Ascorbic acid, gallic acid, FeSO4

[116]

LF

MET, AQ

DPPH and superoxide scavenging activity

_

Ascorbic acid

[117]

LF RT

MET

DPPH

_

Ascorbic acid

[118]

LF St IF RT

HEX, CH, EA, MET

DPPH

_

Ascorbic acid

[97]

LF

ETH

DPPH, Hydroxyl radical scavenging, FRAP

_

Ellagic acid,

[119]

LF

MET, AQ

DPPH, FRAP, DNA damage inhibition efficiency

pBR322 plasmid DNA

_

[91]

RT

HEX, PE, EA, ETH, CH, AQ

DPPH, Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity

_

BHT, Ascorbic acid

[120]

LF

ETH

DPPH, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, β-Carotene–linoleic acid, FRAP

_

Ascorbic acid

[99]

Anti-plasmodial

St LF RT SD

ETH

In vitro antiplasmodial assay, Chemical injury to erythrocytes

Plasmodium falciparum

Chloroquine

[121]

Antiprotease level increment

RT

AQ

Serum anti-trypsin activity,

Labeo rohita (fish)

_

[122]

Anti-ulcer

RT

MET

Acid neutralizing capacity, NaOH required, ulcer index

Wistar albino rats

Ranitidine

[123]

LF

AQ

Gastric acid, LPO and Nitrous oxide scavenging activity

Rats

Ranitidine/ Aspirin

[124]

Anti-viral

RT

MET and oleanolic acid (isolated compound)

MTT assay, Antiviral plaque, Dose–response, virucidal, Viral penetration, Time response assay, PCR, ELISA

African green monkey kidney cells; HSV-1, HSV-2

_

[125]

Cardio-vascular

SD

Isolated saponins

Contraction of hearts

Heart of Frog, Pig and Rabbit

Pronethanol

[126]

 

Isolated saponins

Activity of phosphorylase

Rat heart

Adrenaline bitartrate

[127]

 

Achyranthine

Blood pressure, heart rate,

Dogs and frogs

_

[128]

Diuretic

SD

AQ

K+, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonate, creatinine, urea and pH

Goats

Furosemide

[129]

WP

MET

Lipschitz Method

Male Wistar albino rats

Furosemide 100mg/kg

[130]

SD

ETH

TB, TP, ALT, AST, ALP, Histology

Male Wistar albino rats

CCl4 / Furosemide

[131]

RT SD

AQ

Ca+, Phosphorous, Creatinine, Urea, Kidney Weight

Male albino Wistar rats

Ethylene glycol/ Furosemide

[132]

SD

Isolated saponin

_

Male albino rats

_

[133]

Gastro-protective/ anti-ulcer

LF

ETH

pH, Gastric volume, Total and free acidity, Ulcerative index, Ulcer grading

Rats

Omeprazole (10mg/kg p. o.)

[134]

Hepato-protective

AP

MET

SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB

Albino rats

Rifampicin

[135]

SD

ETH

TB, TP, ALT, AST, ALP and Histology

Male Wistar albino rats

Silymarin/ CCl4

[136]

LF

ETH

SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TP, TC TB, Triglycerides, urea, Histology

Male Wistar albino rats

Paracetamol/ Silymarin

[137]

AP

MET

SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB, TC, TP, Albumin

Wistar albino rats

Paracetamol/ Silymarin,

[138]

LF

ETH

AST, ALT, ALP, SOD, TP, TB, LPO, GSH, GST,

Male albino Wistar rats

20% Ethanol/ Silymarin

[139]

Hypo-
glyceamic

WP

AQ, MET

Blood glucose level

Rabbits

Alloxan

[140]

St LF

ETH

Glucose tolerance, glucose, LPO, Hydroperoxide, CAT

Male Swiss albino mice

Alloxan/ Metformin

[141]

Hyper-triglycerdemia

RT

Ardhabilva Kvatha Curna

Lipid profile

Albino rats

 

[142]

Hyper-
lipidemic

WP

Isolated Saponin

Lipid profile and atherogenic index

Wistar rats

Orlistat

[143]

LF

AQ

TC, VLDL, LDL, PL, Triglycerides, Free fatty acids, HDL, HMG, Lipoprotein lipase, SOD, CAT, GSH, LPO

Male Wistar rats

_

[144]

Hypo-
lipidemic

SD

AQ

TC, Lipid profile, Triglycerides, Phospholipids

Male albino Wistar rats

Anjali, Idhayam oil

[145]

 

AL

TC, phospholipid, triglyceride and total lipids

Rats

Triton as a compound

[146]

Immuno-modulatory

SD

 

Hemagglutination, TP, Albumin, Globulin, Anti-proteases, RNA/DNA ratio

Catla catla (fish)

Chicken red blood cells (antigen)

[147]

Larvicidal

LF

Saponin isolated

Larvicidal bioassay

AA, CQ

_

[148]

St, LF

Extracted essential oil

Attractant/repellent, Oviposition attractant/deterrent assay

AA, CQ

_

[149]

 

MET, AQ

Larvicidal, Insecticidal, Repellent activity

AA, MC

Temephos

[150]

St

HEX

Screening, Larvicidal bioassay

AA

_

[151]

Nephro-protective

WP

MET

Urea, Uric acid, Creatinine, γ-GT, ALP, ACP, LDH, NAG and Cathepsin-D

Male albino rats

Lead acetate

[152]

RT

AQ

ALP, LDH, Creatinine, Urea, Urine microscopy, Histology

Male Wistar rats

Ethylene glycol/ Cystone

[153]

Prothyrodic

LF

AQ

LPO, SOD, CAT, TP, glucose, thyroid hormones

Male Wistar rats

_

[154]

Spermicidal

RT

Isolated active protein

Sperm immobilization and revival test, Plasma membrane integrity, Agglutination reaction, 5’ nucleotidase, Toxicity evaluation

Male rats

Nonoxynol-9

[155]

RT

Isolated active protein

Sperm motility and count, AST, ALT, lipid, TC, HMG, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, testosterone, TP

Male Swiss albino mice

Gossypol

[156]

WP

BEN

_

Mice

_

[157]

RT

ETH

Sperm mortality

_

_

[158]

RT

HE (1:1), HEX, CHL, EA

Immobilization assay, EC50, Sperm revival and viability, Nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD) test, vaginal contraceptive, 5′-nucleotidase

Humans and Rats

_

[159]

RT

HE (1:1)

Sperm motility and count, ∆5, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, TC, CAT, LPO, SGOT, SGPT, Histology, Testosterone

Male Wistar Rats

_

[160]

Thermolytic

LF

MET

Brine-Shrimp Lethality (BSL) Bioassay, determination of Thrombolytic activity

Human blood

Streptokinase

[161]

Wound healing

LF

AQ, ETH

Excision and incision wound model

Wistar rats

Nitrofurazone

[117]

LF

ETH, AQ

Area of wound measured

Albino rats

Soframycin

[162]

LF

MET

Burn, Immuno-compromised and Diabetic wound model

Swiss Albino mice, Sprague Dawley rats

Himax ointment

[46]

Lf

Met

Excision, Incision, and Dead space wound model, Histology

Albino mice of either sex

Povidine iodine

[163]

Lf

Met

Wound contraction and epithelization time, Linear incision wound model, Histology and Total DNA content

Albino rats

1% silver sulphadiazine cream

[164]


Abbriviations

[17]β-HSD-[17]β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase; 3β-HSD-3β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase; AA-Aedesaegypti; AB-Acinetobactorbaumanii; AC-Asperigilluscarneus; ACP-AcidPhosphatase; ACT-Acetone; AF-Aspergillusfumigates; AFL-Aspergillusflavus; AL-Alcohol; ALP-AlkalinePhosphatase; ALT-AlanineTransferase; AN-Aspergillusniger; AP-ArialPart; AQ-Aqueous; AST-Aspartatre Transferase; BAC-Bacillus; BC-Bacilluscereus; BEN-Benzene; BP-Bacilluspumilis; BS-Bacillussubtilis; BSB-Bacillussubtilisand; BUT-Butanol; CA-Candidaalbicans; CAT-Catalase; CG-Candidaguilliermondi; CGL-Candidaglabrata; CH-Chloroform; CI-Cinobacteria; CIT-Citrobacter; CK-Candidakrusei; CKE-Candidakefyr; CN-Cryptococcusneoformans; CQ-CulixQuinquefasciatus; CS-ClostridiumSporegenes; CT-Candidatropicalis; DC-Dermatophiluscongolensis; DLC-DifferentialLeukocyteCount; DPPH-[1,1]-diphenyl-[1,2]-picrylhydrazyl; Ea-Enterobacteraerogenes; EA-Ethyl-acetate; EC-Escherichiacoli; EF-Enterococcusfaecalis; ETH-Ethanolic; FRAP-Ferricreducingantioxidantpower; FU-Fusariumsp; GSH-ReducedGlutathione; GST-Glutathione-S-transferase; HDL-HighDensitylipoprotein; HEX-Hexane; HMG-HMG-CoAreductase; HSV-Herpessimplexvirus; HT-Heterobardionsp; KLB-Klebsiella; KP-Klebsiellapneumonia; LDH-Lactatedehydrogenase; LDL-Lowdensitylipoprotein; LF-Leaves; LH-lipidhydroperoxides;

LPO-LipidPeroxidation; MC-Mastomyscoucha; MDA-Malondialdehydelevel; MET-Methanolic,MG-Microsporumgypseum; MIC-MinimumInhibitoryConcentration; ML-MicrococcusLuteus; MPO-Myeloperoxidase; MS-MycobacteriumSmegmatis; MTT-; 3-([4,5]-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-[2,5]-DiphenyltetrazoliumBromide; PA-PseudomonasaeruginosaPEPetroleumether; PF-PseudomonasfluorescencePM-ProteusMirabilis; PO-proteusorganism; PP-Pheretimaposthuma; PR-Panicilliumrubrum; PV-ProteusVulgaris; RO-Rhizopusoryzae; RT-Roots; SA-Staphylococcusaureus; SAB-Salmonellaabony; SAG-S.agalactiae; SAL-Salmonella; SC-SaccharomycesCerevisie; SD-Seeds; SDY-S.dysgalactiae; SE-StaphylococcusEpidermilis; SF-ShigellaFlexneri; SGOT-SerumGlutamicoxaloacetictransaminase; SGPT-Serumglutamicpyruvictransaminase; SH-Shigella; SI-Staphylococcuintermedius; SL-Sarcinalutea; SOD-SuperoxideDismutase; SP-Streptococcuspyogens; ST-Salmonellatyphimurium; St-Stems; TB-TotalBilirubin; TC-TotalCholesterol; Temephos-O,O,O’O’-tetramethylO,O’-thiodip-phenylenephosphorothioate; TM-TrichophytonmentagrophytesTrichophytonrubrum; TV-Tricodermavibriae; VLDL-VeryLowdensitylipoprotein; VP-VibrioParahaemolyticus; WP-WholePlant; XC-Xanthomonascampestris; γ-GT-γglutamyl-transferase.

Table 3: Negative results of pharmacological and biological activities of Achyranthes aspera Linn

Activity

Plant parts

Extract

Methods/ Parameters studied

Experimental model

Standard/ Compounds

References

Anti-microbial

LF

AQ

Agar well diffusion

CA,CT, CK, CKE CN, CG, CGA, AN, AF, AFL, RO

Ketoconazole (30mg) and

Itraconazole (30mg)

[94]

ETH

Agar well diffusion

CG

MET

Agar well diffusion

AFL, RO, CGA

WP

AQ, ETH

Dilution method

EC, CI, KLB, PO

_

[96]

MET, CH

Dilution method

KLB, PO

St

HEX, EA

Agar well cut diffusion technique

EC

_

[97]

Lf

EA

Agar well cut diffusion technique

SA

St

PE, EA, CH, MET, ETH

MIC, Disc-diffusion assay

EF

Ampicillin

[98]

SD

Volatile oil

Disc diffusion method

TV, PR

_

[108]

LF

AQ MET

Agar well diffusion, MIC, MBC

SA, SP, EC, PA, PV

_

[165]

HEX

Agar well diffusion method, MIC, MLC

CA, AN

_

[166]

LF

MET

Well diffusion method

KP, PA, EC

Vancomycin, Ciproflaxocin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloromphenicol, Piperacillin

[91]

AQ

Well diffusion method

SA, KP, BS, PA, EC

LF

AQ

Agar diffusion method

SA, SP

Ampicillin

[112]

Anti-fertility

RT

PE, AQ

Post coital anti-fertility testing,

Female albino rats

Ethinly estradiol

[76]

Antioxidant

RT

CH

DPPH

-

Ascorbic acid

[97]

Eye irritation potential

LF

AQ

Hen’s Egg Test Choroiallantoic Membrane, Acute Eye Irritation Test

Hen’s Egg and Rabbits

SDS and NaOH

[167]

Acute toxicity

LF

MET

Cage side observations, daily food and water intake, daily body weight and

daily mortality record

Albino Swiss Mice

_

[168]

 

Abbriviations

AF-Aspergillusfumigates; AFL-Aspergillusflavus; AN-Aspergillusniger; AQ-Aqueous; BS-Bacillussubtilis; CA-Candidaalbicans; CG-Candidaguilliermondi; CGA-Candidaglabrata; CH-Chloroform; CI-Cinobacteria; CK-Candidakrusei; CKE-Candidakefyr; CN-Cryptococcusneoformans; CT-Candidatropicalis; DPPH-[1,1]-diphenyl-[1,2]-picrylhydrazyl; EA-Ethyl-acetate; EC-Escherichiacoli; EF-Enterococcusfaecalis; ETH-Ethanol; HEX-Hexane; KLB-Klebsiella; KP-Klebsiellapneumonia; LF-Leaves; MBC-minimum bactericidalconcentration; MET-Methanol; MIC-MinimumInhibitoryConcentration; MLC-Minimumlethalcount; PA-Pseudomonasaeruginosa; PE-Petroleumether; PO-proteusorganism; PR-Panicilliumrubrum; PV-ProteusVulgaris,RO-Rhizopusoryzae; RT-Roots; SA-Staphylococcusaureus; SD-Seeds; SP-Streptococcuspyogens; St-Stems; TV-Tricodermavibriae; WP-WholePlant.

Ethnobotanical uses

A. aspera is widely used to treat various kinds of ailments. Various traditional ethnobotanical uses of the medicinal herb are summarized in table 4.

Table 4: Traditional ethnobotanical uses and folk remedies of Achyranthes aspera Linn

Plant part

Process

Diseases

References

Whole plant

Juice of plant

Dysentery Boils, Diarrhea, Haemorrhoids, Rhematic problems, Skin problems.

[11]

Plant ash mixed with mustered oil and a pinch of salt.

Tooth powder for teeth.

[11]

Fumes of plant mixed with Smilex ovalifolia roots.

Improve appetite and cure various gastric disorders.

[9]

Decoction of this plant

Diuretic in renal problem, general anasarca, Beriberi, Pneumonia

[169-171]

Plant Powder taken twice a day with lukewarm water or milk

Rheumatism and Blindness in cattle

[172]

Plant Ash twice a day with honey

Cough

[173]

Juice taken thrice a day

Toothache

[171]

Root

Plant powder (Two teaspoonful) taken once at night

Stomachic and digestive Astringent and bowel complaints

[173- 175]

Decoction of roots

Pneumonia, Stomach problems

[9]

Root powder with water until the patient vomits and again conciouness

Snake bite

[9]

A fresh piece

As tooth bursh

[9]

Roots Infusion in water taken thrice a day

Mild astringent

[170]

Root powder given in water.

Used as antidode for snake bite.

[9]

Urena lobata and Bark of Psidium guajava mixed with root juice

Dysentery, Diarrhea

[9]

Powder taken daily with water

Leprosy

[176]

Paste taken daily with water

Antifertility

[177]

Root ashes mixed with water

Cough, ascites, anasarca

[70]

Powder taken twice a daily

Bleeding in delivery

[178-179]

Black papper mixed with an equal volume of root powder, divided in three parts and gives in three times.

Diarrhea

[9]

Stem

Fresh stem

As a tooth brush

[9]

Leaves

Crushed leaves rubbed on back.

Strained back cure.

[9]

Seven leaves crushed and taken as a single dose twice a week.

Dog bite.

[9]

Juice takes every third hour

Diarrhea

[9]

A paste of leaves

Rabies, nervous disorders, hysteria, insect and snake bite.

[11]

Juice mixed with opium taken with water two times

Syphilitic sores, Gonorrhea, Bowel complaint, pile, boil, stomach, skin eruption

[170-171]

Decoction of powdered leaves

taken twice day

Early stages of diarrhea and dysentery

[170, 179]

Jiggery or black peppery and garlic mixed with fresh leaves and made pills taken twice a day

Antiperiodic

[170, 179]

Seeds

Raw seeds taken with water

Expectorants, Brain Tonic, Bleeding piles

[170]

Flowers

Flowers paste taken daily

Menorrhagia

[171]

Paste as external use

Snakes and reptiles bites

[170]

Fruits

Unripe fruits taken three times daily

Respiratory problems

[171]

 

CONCLUSION

From the above literature, it is concluded that A. aspera Linn. possess many chemical constituents that are responsible for various pharmacological and biological activities. A. aspera also exhibits multiple ethnobotanical uses, so A. aspera is a vital medicinal herb.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors are hearty thankful to the authorities and technical staff of Banasthali University for providing facility to carry out the work.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Authors have no conflict of interest.

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