J Crit Rev, Vol 2, Issue 2, 7-11 Review Article


CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR IRBESARTAN AND ITS COMBINATION WITH OTHER DRUG

PARAS VIRANI1, 2*, RAJANIT SOJITRA2, HASUMATI RAJ2, VINEETJAIN2

1Research Scholar 2014, Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat, 2Quality assurance department, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat
Email: Parasvirani@gmail.com  

Received: 09 Dec 2014 Revised and Accepted: 05 Jan 2015


ABSTRACT

Chromatographic method is most useful analytical method that gives estimation, impurity profiling, assay and compedial method for single and combination of drug. Irbesartan is classified as an angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonists are widely used in treatment of diseases like hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of this drug requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry related journals has been conducted and the instrumental analytical methods which were developed and used for determination as single or combination with other drugs in bulk drugs, formulations and biological fluids have been reviewed. This review covers the most recent many chromatographic methods including Residue by HPLC, HPTLC, RP HPLC and liquid chromatography tendam mass spectroscopy were reported.

Keyword: Irbesartan, Analytical Method, HPLC, Anti hypertensive drug, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist.


INTRODUCTION

Irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is used mainly for the treatment of hypertension [1]. It is an orally active nonpeptide tetrazole derivative. IUPAN name of irbesartan is 2-butyl-3-({4- [2-(2H-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrazol-5-yl) phenyl] phenyl} methyl)-1, 3-diazaspiro [4.4] non-1-en-4-one [2]. These are organic compounds containing a biphenyl attached to a tetrazole (table 1). A carbon atom of the biphenyl moiety is boned to a carbon or the nitrogen atom of the tetrazole moiety so it’s highly selective for angiotensin II receptor.

Table 1: Structural identification of Irbesartan [3]

S. No.

Class

Identification

1

Primary class

Organic compound

2

Super class

Heterocyclic Compound

3

Class

Azoles

4

Subclass

Tetrazole derivative

5

Direct parent

Biphenyltetrazoles and Derivatives

6

Alternative parent

Biphenyls and Derivatives; Imidazolinones; Tertiary Carboxylic Acid Amides


Fig. 1: Structure of Irbesartan [4]

Appearance is white or almost white, crystalline powder. Solubility is given in practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in methylene chloride. It shows polymorphism.

Mechanism of action

Irbesartan is a nonpeptide tetrazole derivative and an angiotensin II antagonist that selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor [1.] In the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin I is converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to form angiotensin II. Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete aldosterone, which decreases the excretion of sodium and increases the excretion of potassium. Angiotensin II also acts as a vasoconstrictor in vascular smooth muscle. Irbesartan, by blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor, promotes vasodilation and decreases the effects of aldosterone. The negative feedback regulation of angiotensin II on renin secretion is also inhibited, but the resulting rise in plasma renin concentrations and consequent rise in angiotensin II plasma concentrations do not counteract the blood pressure–lowering effect that occurs. Irbesartan is a specific competitive antagonist of AT1 receptors with a much greater affinity (more than 8500-fold) for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor and no agonist activity.

Rapid and complete with an average absolute bioavailability of 60-80 %. Food has no effect on bioavailability. it is also used in diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and protein uria (>300 mg/day) in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Irbesartan is also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure [6].

Combination of Irbesartan

  • Irbesartan+hydrochlorthaizide
  • Irbesartan+losartan
  • Irbesartan+valsartan
  • Irbesartan+amlodipine
  • Irbesartan+Celiprolol, Bisoprolol
  • Irbesartan+other angiotensin receptor II blocker

Fig. 2: Mechanism of Irbesartan [5]

Marketed formulation of Irbesartan [3, 6]

Irbesartan formulation:

  • Avapro, Avalide,
  • Xarg, Irovel, Irbestin

Irbesartan combination formulation

  • Irovel –H, Irbestin –H,
  • Xarg-H, vapro –H

Analytical method

Compendial method

Irbesartan is official in European Pharmacopoeia and United State Pharmacopoeia.

Reported method

Chromatographic methods

The high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)for residue determination and simultaneous estimation of single and combination drug and also used in impurity profiling. HPTLC method is widely used chromatographic methods in the analysis of irbesartan in plasma and pharmaceutical dosage form. RP HPLC method also developed for determination of concentration of irbesartan in human serum and also for simultaneous determination in synthetic mixture, combination dosage form like hydrochlorthaizide, losartan, valsartan. UP-HPLC is used for determination of combination of hydrochlorthiazide and irbesartan.

Stability indicating method

Stability indicating method is used to check out the stability of drug in various conditions. Here irbesartan is studied by RP-HPLC, HPTLC, and also LC/MS/MS for stability study.

DISCUSSION

Presented systematic review covers the current analytical methods for the determination of Irbesartan and its combination in pharmaceutical and biological samples like serum and plasma. HPLC method was found to be most widely used for Irbesartan. Various chromatographic conditions are presented in table. The sensitivity, specificity, and better separation efficiency enable HPLC to be used frequently for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of Irbesartan.

Table 2: Summary of compendial method of irbesartan [7, 8]

Title

Pharmacopoeia

Method

Detail

Reference

Identification

European Pharmacopoeia

Infrared absorption spectrophotometry

I. R spectroscopy is perform with irbesartan CTR and method is solid state analysis

7

Assay

European Pharmacopoeia

Potentiometric titration method

Solvent is used 0.1 M perchloric acid, determining the end-point

potentiometric ally

7

Identification

United State

Pharmacopoeia

Infrared absorption spectrophotometry

I. R spectroscopy is perform with mixture of potassium bromide in solid state analysis

8

Assay

United State

Pharmacopoeia

High performance liquid chromatography

Phosphate buffer(pH 3.2):acetonitrile (63:37 v/v) as mobile phase and column is (25 mm x 4 mm, 2.5micron)

8


Table 3: Summary of Chromatographic method of Irbesartan [9–35]

Title

Method

Mobile phase

Stationary phase

Wave length

Reference

Development and validation of HPLC assay

for estimation of Irbesartan in Human Plasma

RP-HPLC

acetonitrile-ammonium acetate

buffer (pH 4.0, 20 mm) (40:60 v/v),

Agilent Eclipse C18 column (5μ, 4.6 mm x 150 mm)

245 nm

9

RP-HPLC-DAD method for determination

of irbesartan in bulk and tablet dosage form

RP-HPLC-DAD

Methanol-phosphate

buffer(pH 3.0)(50:50v/v)

Xterra C18 column (5μ, 4.6 mm x 150 mm)

209 nm

10

Content Determination of Irbesartan

in Serum by

HPLC

HPLC

Water-methanol-

phosphoric acids

(gradient dilution)

μBond park C 18 (5μ, 7.8 mm×300 mm)

245 nm

11

Development and validation of a sensitive

RP-HPLC-PDA method For assay of irbesartan

in pure and pharmaceutical dosage Forms

RP-HPLC-PDA

Methanol-

formic acid (0.02% v/v in

water (70:30)

Phenomenex C18 column (250

x 4.6 mm, 5 μ)

234 nm

12

Development and validation of HPLC

method for the estimation of irbesartan in

pharmaceutical dosage form

HPLC

methanol, acetonitrile and

2% OPA (40:40:20, v/v/v)

Inertsil ODS C-18, 5μm column having 250 x 4.6 mm

260 nm

13

Hplc determination of irbesartan in

human plasma: its application to

pharmacokinetic studies

HPLC

acetonitrile: 0.1% formic

acid (37:63, v/v)

Zorbax Xclipse XDB C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm)

250 nm

370 nm

14

Simultaneous hplc determination of

irbesartan and hydrochlorthaizide in

pharmaceutical dosage form

HPLC

Buffer(pH 5.5)-acetonitrile

(65:35 v/v)

Ace 5-C18 column (250

x 4.6 mm, 5 μ)

260 nm

15

HPLC method with monolithic column for

simultaneousDetermination of

irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets

HPLC

phosphate buffer (pH 4)/

acetonitrile(50:50, V/V)

Chromolith® Performance RP-18e column (250

x 4.6 mm, 5 μ)

270 nm

16

Simultaneous determination of irbesartan and

Hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma using HPLC

Coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: Application

To bioequivalence studies

HPLC

2.5% formic acid, methanol

and acetonitrile (40:45:15, v/v/v

(%))

Ace 5-C18 column

(50 mm × 4 mm, 3 μm)

260 nm

17

Simultaneous Analysis of Irbesartan

and Hydrochlorothiazide:

An Improved HPLC Method

HPLC

methanol-tetrahydrofuranacetate

buffer 47:10:43 v/v/v,

Supelcosil C18

(150 mm × 4.6 mm,

5 micron particle size)

271 nm

18

Development and validation of rp-hplc

method for simultaneous estimation of

irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide

in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms

RP-HPLC

Methanol: Acetonitrile: Buffer

(10 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH6.8)(40:30:30%v/v/v)

Agilent ODS UG 5 Column 250 mmX

4.5 mm Dimension

264 nm

19

RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous

Estimation of Irbesartan and

Hydrochlorthiazide in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

RP-HPLC

sodium acetate buffer:

acetonitrile (45:55).

Hypesil BDS RP-18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5

260 nm

20

Development and validation of a RP-HPLC-PDA method for

Simultaneous estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide

and Irbesartan

RP-HPLC-PDA

methanol: THF: acetate

buffer (60:10:30v/v)

symmetry C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm,

5.0 μ particle size)

271 nm

21

HPLC–DAD Analysis of

Hydrochlorothiazide and Irbesartan in

Hypertensive Patients

HPLC–DAD

acetonitrile–phosphate

buffer (pH 3.6)(gradiant mixture)

C4 column symmetry (250 mm x 4.6 mm,

5.0 μ)

242 nm

22

Development & Validation of a High Performance

LiquidChromatography Method for

Simultaneous Determination of Irbesartan

HPLC

methanol: acetonitrile:

0.005 M KH2PO4 (pH

4.7)(40: 30:30)

PhenomenEX

Luna (250 mm x 4.6 mm,

5.0 μ particle size)

260 nm

23

Development and validation of reverse phase high

Performance liquid chromatography

method for Simultanious estimation of amlodipine

besylate and Irbesartan in synthetic mixture.

RP-HPLC

acetonitrile: methanol: water,

pH 3.0 (25: 20: 55, v/v/v)

Phenomenex C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μ

238 nm

24

Quantitative Determination of three

Angiotensin-II-receptor Antagonists in P

resence of Hydrochlorothiazide by RP-HPLC in

their Tablet Preparations

RP-HPLC

0.025M potassium dihydrogen phosphate: acetonitrile (65:35 v/v)

Ace 5-C18 column

(250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)

220 nm

25

Novel Validated Chromatographic Method for

Determination of Some Anti-hypertensive Drugs

RP HPLC

phosphate buffer pH = 3.2:

acetonitrile (60:40, v/v)

Atlantis C18 column

(250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)

260 nm

26

Fast screening method for the determination of

angiotensin II receptor antagonists in human

plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

with fluorimetric detection

HPLC

acetonitrile–5 mM acetate buffer,

pH 4(gradiant mixture)

μBondapak C18, (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)

250 nm

27

Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method

for the Estimation ofValsartan, Losartan and

Irbesartan in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation

RP-HPLC

acetonitrile: phosphate potassium buffer (pH= 3) (gradiant mixture)

Phenomenex C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μ

254 nm

28

Identification and determination of selected angiotensin ii

Receptor antagonist group drugs by HPLC method

HPLC

0.1 mol/l sodium acetate

(pH = 5.5) ñ acetonitrile ñ

methanol in 35:9:6 v/v/v

Zorbax SB-C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μ

230 nm

29

Simultaneous determination of olmesartan

medoxomil and irbesartan and

hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical

formulations and human serum using high

performance liquid chromatography.

HPLC

acetonitrile-0.2% acetic acid

aqueous solution (50:50, v/v)

micro-Bondapak, C18 column (15 cm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm),

220NM

30

Simultaneous determination of the

acid/base antihypertensive drugs

Celiprolol, bisoprolol and irbesartan in

human plasma by liquid

Chromatography

HPLC

Acetonitril-Methenol (60:40)

Kromosil C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μ

260NM

31

RP-HPLC method for simultataneous

determination of irbesartan, losartan,

hydro-chlorothiazide and chlorthalidone

RP-HPLC

0.05 M sodium dihydrogen

phosphate buffer and

acetonitrile (Gradient ratio)

Hypersil BDS (Length 250 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm)

220NM

32

Validated HPTLC method for simultaneous

estimation of

Irbesartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in a tablet

dosage form

HPTLC

acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (8:2 v/v).

silica

gel 60F [254].

260NM

33

Development and validation of a HPTLC method for

The simultaneous estimation of irbesartan and

Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form.

HPTLC

acetonitrile:

chloroform: glacial acetic

acid (7:3:0.1 v/v/v).

precoated silica gel 60F [254].

260 nm

34

Simultaneous determination of irbesartan

and hydrochlorothiazide inhuman plasma by

ultra-high performance liquid chromatography

tandem mass spectrometry

UP-HPLC

0.1% formic acid in water-

acetonitrile (6.5:3.5)

Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 m particle size)

254 nm

35


Table 4: Stability indicating method for Irbesartan [36–39]

Title

Method

Mobile phase

Stationary phase

Wave length

Ref.

A validated stability indicating liquid chromatographic method

for determination of process related impurities and

degradation behaviour of Irbesartan in solid oral dosage

Stability indicating

RP HPLC

Acetonitrile-0.55% v/v ortho phosphoric acid, pH adjusted to 3.2 with

triethyl amine (95:5 v/v)

Hypersil

Octadecylsilyl(4.6 mm× [15]0 mm, 3μm)

220 nm

36

Development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC method

for irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk drug. and

Tablet dosage form

Stability indicating

HPLC

50 mm Ammonium acetate: Acetonitrile

(pH 5.5) (70:30v/v)

EnableC [18]G( [25]0 mmx4.6 mm,

5μm)

235 nm

37

A validated stability indicating HPTLC method for simultaneous

Estimation of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide.

Stability indicating

HPTLC

Acetonitrile: Chloroform (5:6 v/v)

precoated Silica gel 60F254

270 nm

38

Stability Indicating LC Method for Simultaneous

Determination of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide

in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Stability indicating

LC/MS/MS

0.1% formic acid in water-acetonitrile (65:35 v/v)

-

-

39

The other analytical method like RP-HPLC, HPTLC, LC/MS/MS, UV, VOLTAMETRY, ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD is also used for determination of Irbesartan in blood, serum, pharmaceutical dosage form, synthetic mixture and also stability study but most preferably high performance and other chromatography method is used for identification, separation, assay, impurity profiling, etc study. The presented information is useful for the future study for researcher involved in formulation development and quality control of Irbesartan.

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

Declared None

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About this article

Title

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR IRBESARTAN AND ITS COMBINATION WITH OTHER DRUG

Date

31-03-2015

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Journal of Critical Reviews
Vol 2, Issue 2, 2015 Page: 7-11

Online ISSN

2394-5125

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Authors & Affiliations

Paras Virani
Research Scholar 2014, Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat
India

Rajanit Sojitra

Hasumati Raj

Vineet Jain


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