Prasenjit Mondal, Shravanthi Nannapu, Pooja Adi, Swapna Naredla, Harish Peruka


The present review article describes about the newly approved enteral suspension, “DUOPA” by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the new treatment option for the advanced Parkinson ’s disease with the people having motor fluctuations. This was approved in January 2015. Parkinson disease foundation’s report state that about 10 million of the people suffering with this advance Parkinson’s disease worldwide. With the several oral treatment options for this dieses the administered tablets may remain in the stomach too long due to slow and inconsistent emptying of its content which can delay in the absorption and delayed response to the treatment. But now DUOPA emerged a new trends for the treatment of parkinsonism with unique route of administration, which bypasses the stomach and enters directly in to small intestine by uses a portable infusion pump that delivers both the drugs of DUOPA directly in to intestine via a tube up to continuous 16 h. There was no such detailed review available in this area, so this present article helps the researches and readers to understand about the pathophysiology, and available treatment options for Parkinsonism in attractive manner and also perceive the significance of use of DUOPA a carbidopa and levodopa enteral suspension with an innovative administration technique.

Keywords: Parkinsonism, DUOPA, Enteral suspension, Small intestine.


Persuade the causes and treatment of disease. Available from: http://www.parkinsons.org/parkinsons-history.html. [Last accessed on 10 Jul 2015].

Coordination of muscle activity. Available from: http://www.parkinson.ca/site/c.kgLNIWODKpF/b.3536133/k.9CD0/Brief_History.htm History of Parkinson's disease–Parkinson disease center. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Pearce JM, Aspects of the history of Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:6–10.

Charles SM. Parkinson's disease: Overview and current abstracts. 2nd ed., Nova science publishers, new York; 2002. p. 124.

Armstrong RA. Visual signs and symptoms of parkinson's disease. Clin Exp Optom 2008;91:129-38.

Benamer HT, Oertel WH, Patterson J, Hadley DM, Pogarell O, Höffken H, et al. Prospective study of presynaptic dopaminergic imaging in patients with mild parkinsonism and tremor disorders: part 1. Baseline and 3-month observations. Mov Disord 2003;18:977-84.

Jankovic J. Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79:368-76.

Aarsland D, Londos E, Ballard C. Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies: different aspects of one entity. Int Psychogeriatr 2009;21:216-9.

Lebouvier T, Chaumette T, Paillusson S, Duyckaerts C, DesrannesS B, Neunlist M, et al. The second brain and Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci 2009;30:735–41.

Other manifestation in Parkinsonism disease. Available from: http://www.pdf.org/en/meds_treatments. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. Pharmacology. fifth edition. Elsevier publication; 2003. p. 497.

Drug treatment in Parkinsonism. Available from: http//www.minds.nig.gov/disorders/parkinsons.disease/detail/parkinsons disease.Htm. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Available drugs for the treatment of parkinsonism. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/ basics/treatment/con-20028488. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Mechanism whereby levodopa treats the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Available from: http://www.centerwatch. Com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100061/ duopa- carbidopa-and-levodopa-enteral-suspension. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Dose of oral immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa tablets. Available from: http://www.rxlist.com/duopa-drug. htm Medlibrary.org/lib/rx/meds/duopa. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Dose of oral immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa tablets. Available from: http://www.drugs.com/dosage/duopa.html. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Administrative information of DUOPA. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/203952s000lbl.pdf. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Contraindication of DUOPA. Available from: http:// nccsdailymed1.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=174649. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Adverse reaction of DUOPA. Available from: http://www. multivu.com/players/English/7132951-abbvie-fda-approval-duopa/links/7132951-Duopa-FDA-Approval-Fact-Sheet.Pdf. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Storage and handling of DUOPA. Available from: http://www. drugs.com/pro/duopa.Html. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

Storage and handling of DUOPA. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/20786. [Last accessed on 17 Aug 2015].

About this article





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


Journal of Critical Reviews
Vol 3, Issue 2, 2016 Page: 1-5

Online ISSN



215 Views | 173 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Prasenjit Mondal
Department of Pharmacy, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, Telangana State, India, 505481

Shravanthi Nannapu

Pooja Adi

Swapna Naredla

Harish Peruka


  • There are currently no refbacks.