• Siti Kusmardiyani
  • Fitria Alfianti
  • Irda Fidrianny School of Pharmacy Bandung Institute of Technology


Objective: The aims of this research were to determine antioxidant activity from various herbs extracts of three kinds of lemon grass using two
antioxidant testing methods which were 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and correlation of total
phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total carotenoid contents (TCC) with their inhibitory concentration 50% (IC
) of DPPH and
exhibitory concentration 50% (EC
) of FRAP.
Methods: A sample was extracted by reflux method using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant
activities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of TPC, TFC, and TCC were carried out by ultraviolet -visible spectrophotometry and correlation
with their IC
of DPPH and EC
of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson's method.
Results: The ethanolic herbs extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CC) had the lowest IC
of DPPH scavenging activity 2.75 µg/ml and the lowest EC

of FRAP capacity 12.22 µg/ml. Ethanolic herbs extract of Cymbopogon winterianus exposed the highest phenolic content and its n-hexane extract
presented the highest carotenoid content. Ethyl acetate herbs extract of CC gave the highest flavonoid content. There was significantly negative
correlation between TPC in CC herbs extract with their IC
of DPPH and EC
of FRAP.
Conclusions: All herbs extracts from three kinds of lemon grass were categorized as a very strong antioxidant by DPPH method. Phenolic compounds
in CC were the major contributor in antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods. DPPH and FRAP gave linear result in antioxidant activities of
herbs extract of three kinds of lemon grass.
Keywords: Antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Lemon grass, Three kinds, Herbs.


1. Sebei K, Gnouma A, Herchi W, Sakouhi F, Boukhchina S. Lipids,
proteins, phenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities
of seeds of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L) cultivated in tunisia. Biol Res
2. Mokbel MS, Hashinaga F. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities
of banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish) fruits peel. Am J Biochem
Biotechnol 2005;1(3):125-31.
3. Xu BJ, Chang SK. Total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of
eclipse black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) As affected by processing
methods. J Food Sci 2008;73(2):19-27.
4. Mashkor IM. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fenugreek
seeds extract. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2014;6(4):841-4.
5. Zielinski AA, Haminiuk CW, Alberti A, Nogueira A, Demiate IM,
Granato D. A comparative study of the phenolic compounds and
the in vitro antioxidant activity of different Brazilian teas using
multivariate statistical techniques. Food Res Int 2014;60:246-54.
6. Cheel J, Theoduloz C, Rodríguez J, Hirschmann GS. Free radical
scavengers and antioxidants from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus
(DC.) Stapf.). J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(7):2511-7.
7. Fidrianny I, Windyaswari AS, Wirasutisna KR. Antioxidant capacities
of various leaves extract from five colors varieties of sweet potatoes
tubers using ABTS, DPPH assays and correlation with total flavonoid,
phenolic, carotenoid content. Res J Med Plant 2013;7(3):130-40.
8. Apak R, Güçlü K, Demirata B, Ozyürek M, Celik SE, Bektasoglu B,
et al. Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity
assays applied to phenolic compounds with the cuprac assay. Molecules
9. Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Zevallos LC, Byrne DH.
Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating
antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Compost Anal
10. Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S,
Bianchi M, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages
and oils consumed in italy assessed by three different in vitro Assays.
J Nutr 2003;133(9):2812-9.
11. Padalia RC, Verma RS, Chanotiya CS, Yadav A. Chemical fingerprinting
of the fragrant volatiles of nineteen Indian cultivars of Cymbopogon
Spreng (Poaceae). Rec Nat Prod 2011;5(4):290-9.
12. Costa G, Nunes F, Vitorino C, Sousa JJ, Figueiredo IV, Batista MT.
Validation of a RP-HPLC method for quantitation of phenolic
compounds in three different extracts from Cymbopogon citratus. Res J
Med Plants 2015;9(7):331-9.
13. Lu Y, Khoo TJ, Wiart C. Antioxidant activity determination of
citronellal and crude extracts of Cymbopogon citratus by 3 different
methods. Pharmacol Pharm 2014;5(4):395-400.
14. Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity,
phenol and flavonoid content of some selected Iranian medicinal plants.
Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5(11):1142-5.
15. Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid
content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods.
J Food Drug Anal 2002;10(3):178-82.
16. Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of stable free radicals.
Nature 1958;181(4617):1199-2000.
17. Bedawey AA. Characteristics of Antioxidant Isolated From Some
Plants Sources. Cairo: Shibin El-Kom; 2010. p. 1-11.
18. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) As
a measure of Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem
19. Soares MO, Vinha AF, Barreira SV, Coutinho F, Aires-Gonçalves S,
Oliveira MB et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial
properties of the angolan Cymbopogon citratus essential oil with a view
to its utilization as food biopreservative. J Agric Sci 2013;5(7):36-45.
20. Adesegun AS, Samuel FO, Olawale RG, Funmilola SA. Antioxidant
activity of the volatile oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its inhibition
of the partially purified and characterized extracellular protease of
Shigella sonnei. Am J Res Commun 2013;1(1):31-45.
21. Sah SY, Sia CM, Chang SK, Ang YK, Yim HS. Antioxidant capacity
and total phenolic content of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leave.
Ann Food Sci Technol 2012;13(2):150-5.
22. Vázquez-Briones MC, Hernández LR, Guerrero-Beltrán JA.
Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Cymbopogon citratus
essential oil. J Food Res 2015;4(3):36-45.
23. Li XC, Wang XZ, Chen DF, Chen SZ. Antioxidant activity and
mechanism of protochatechuic acid in vitro. J Funct Food Health Dis
24. Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoid antioxidants:
Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr
Biochem 2002;13(10):572-84.
25. Mongkolsilp S, Pongbupakit I, Sae-Lee N, Sitthithaworn W. Radical
scavenging activity and total phenolic content of medicinal plants used
in primary health care. SWU J Pharm Sci 2004;9(1):32-5.
26. Akande IS, Samuel TA, Agbazue U, Olowolagba BL. Comparative
proximate analysis of ethanolic and water extracts of Cymbopogon
citratus (lemon grass) and four tea brands. J Pharm Biomed Sci
27. Hasim, Falah S, Ayunda RD, Faridah DN. Potential of lemon grass
leaves extract (Cymbopogon citratus) as prevention for oil oxidation.
J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7(10):55-60.
28. Fidrianny I, Johan Y, Sukrasno. Antioxidant activities of different
polarity extracts from three organs of makrut lime (Citrus hystrix dc)
and correlation with total flavonoid, phenolic, carotenoid content.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(4):239-43.
29. Foote CS. Free Radicals in Biology. 3
ed. New York: Academic Press;
30. Beutner S, Bloedorn B, Hoffmann T, Martin HD. Synthetic singlet
oxygen quenchers. Methods Enzymol 2000;319:226-41.
31. Charles DJ. Antioxidant Properties of Spices Shells and Other. London:
John Willey; 2013.
32. Kobayashi M, Sakamoto Y. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of
astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.
Biotechnol Lett 1999;21(4):265-9.
352 Views | 1084 Downloads
How to Cite
Kusmardiyani, S., F. Alfianti, and I. Fidrianny. “ANTIOXIDANT PROFILE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF THREE KINDS OF LEMON GRASS GROWN IN WEST JAVA-INDONESIA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 9, no. 4, July 2016, pp. 381-5,
Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>