EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES
Objective: The cellular synthesis of nanoparticle is a green process and alternative for a conventional process for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.
In our research, focus has been given to the development of an efficient and eco-friendly viable process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using
cancer and non-cancerous cells, a cell culture that was isolated. The results of this investigation are observed that silver nanoparticles could be
induced to synthesis intra- and extra-cellularly using mammalian cells such as cancerous and non-cancerous cells.
Methods: The silver nanoparticles are synthesized by the cancer and non-cancerous cells such as HeLa (Homo sapiens, human), SiHa, and human
embryonic kidney-293 cell lines. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron
microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD).
Results: The silver nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorbance at 415 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD confirms the characteristic of the
crystal lattice of silver nanoparticles by observing three peaks: Peak at 38 is due to reflection from (111), peak at 44 is due to reflection from (200),
and peak at 65 is due to reflection from (220). TEM images showed the formation of stable silver nanoparticles in the cell lines.
Conclusion: The method of extraction of intracellular/extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles was inexpensive, simple, and effective in large
scale with no need to use of complex process equipment. The cancer cell considered as a biological factory at nanoscale dimension which continued to
grow after synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The silver reduction by these cancer cells has occurred through energy-dependent processes that lead to
the high output of this reaction. Hence, this new approach of using a mammalian cell for the successful synthesis of nanosized silvers could be easily
scaled up, which establishes its commercial viability and also useful in the drug delivery and drug targeting.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Cancer cells, Biosynthesis and characteristics of silver nanoparticles.
1. Nam JM, Thaxton CS, Mirkin CA. Nanoparticle - Based bio-
bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins. Science
2. Tkachenko AG, Xie H, Coleman D, Glomm W, Ryan J, Anderson MF,
et al. Multifunctional gold nanoparticle-peptide complexes for nuclear
targeting. J Am Chem Soc 2003;125(16):4700-1.
3. Hirsch LR, Stafford RJ, Bankson JA, Sershen SR, Rivera B, Price RE,
et al. Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors
under magnetic resonance guidance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
4. Blakemore RP. Magnetotactic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol
5. Dameron CT, Reese RN, Mehra RK, Kortan AR, Caroll PJ,
Steigerwald LE, et al. Biosynthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum
semiconductor crystallites. Nature 1989;338:596-7.
6. Pooley FD. Bacteria accumulate silver during leaching of sulphide ore
minerals. Nature 1982;296:642-3.
7. Labrenz M, Druschel GK, Thomsen-Ebert T, Gilbert B, Welch SA,
Kemner KM, et al. Formation of sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural
biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Science 2000;290:1744-7.
8. Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist CG. Silver-based crystalline
nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
9. Klaus-Joerger T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist C. Bacteria as workers
in the living factory: Metal-accumulating bacteria and their potential
for materials science. Trends Biotechnol 2001;19(1):15-20.
10. Wong KK, Mann S. Biomimetic synthesis of cadmium sulphide-ferritin
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Suppl. 2, 2016, 133-139
Subramanian and Shanmugam
nanocomposites. Adv Mater 1996;8:928-31.
11. Liz-Marzan LM. Nano - Metals: Formation and color. Mater Today
12. Mulvaney P. Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal
particles. Langmuir 1996;12:788-800.
13. Burda C, Chen X, Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA. Chemistry and properties
of nanocrystals of different shapes. Chem Rev 2005;105(4):1025-102.
14. Schultz S, Smith DR, Mock JJ, Schultz DA. Single-target molecule
detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels. Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97(3):996-1001.
15. Liau SY, Read DC, Pugh WJ, Furr JR, Russell AD. Interaction of silver
nitrate with readily identifiable groups: Relationship to the antibacterial
action of silver ions. Lett Appl Microbiol 1997;25(4):279-83.
16. Gupta A, Silver S. Silver as a biocide: Will resistance become a
problem? Nat Biotechnol 1998;16(10):888.
17. Nomiya K, Yoshizawa A, Tsukagoshi K, Kasuga NC, Hirakawa S,
Watanabe J. Synthesis and structural characterization of silver(I),
aluminium(III) and cobalt(II) complexes with 4-isopropyltropolone
(hinokitiol) showing noteworthy biological activities. Action of
silver(I)-oxygen bonding complexes on the antimicrobial activities.
J Inorg Biochem 2004;98:46-60.
18. Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B. Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent:
A case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid
Interface Sci 2004;275(1):177-82.
19. Elechiguerra JL, Burt JL, Morones JR, Camacho-Bragado A, Gao X,
Lara HH, et al. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1.
J Nanobiotechnology 2005;3:6.
20. Shankar SS, Ahmad A, Sastry M. Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis
of silver nanoparticles. Biotechnol Prog 2003;19(6):1627-31.
21. Rosemary MJ, Pradeep T. Solvothermal synthesis of silver nanoparticles
from thiolates. J Colloid Interface Sci 2003;268:81-4.
22. Xie Y, Ye R, Liu H. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in reverse micelles
stabilized by natural bio surfactant. Colloids Surf A 2006;279:175-8.
23. Bhainsa KC, Dâ€™Souza SF. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver
nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Colloids Surf B
24. Kowshik M, Ashtaputre S, Kharrazi S, Vogel W, Urban J, Kulkarni SK,
et al. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a silver-tolerant
yeast strain MKY3. Nanotechnology 2003;14:95-100.
25. Zhang Y, Chen F, Zhuang J, Tang Y, Wang D, Wang Y, et al. Synthesis
of silver nanoparticles via electrochemical reduction on compact zeolite
film modified electrodes. Chem Commun (Camb) 2002:2814-5.
26. Hayat MA. Colloidal Gold: Principles, Methods, and Applications.
New York: Academic Press, Inc.; 1989.
27. Mandal S, Phadtare S, Sastry M. Interfacing biology with nanoparticles.
Curr Appl Phys 2005;5:127-218.
28. Prasanna S. Extracellular and Intracellular Synthesis of Silver
Nanoparticles, M.Tech Thesis, Anna University; 2006.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.