COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM WITH PIOGLITAZONE IN DEXAMETHASONE-INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE
Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the preventive effect of heartwood of P. marsupium in dexamethasone-induced hyperinsulinemia
and hyperglycemia and compare it with that of pioglitazone.
Methods: Male albino wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6). Plain control group received gum acacia (2%) orally from d 1 to d 12. Dexa
control group received gum acacia (2%) orally for d 1 to d 12 and Dexa (8 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) from d 7 to d 12, during the study period.
Two test groups received ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood (PME) (1 and 2 g/kg/) per oral (PO), and standard control group
received pioglitazone (60 mg/kg/PO) from d 1 to d 12. During the 12-d study period, the two test groups and standard control group received Dexa
(8 mg/kg/i.p.) from d 7 to d 12. On last day of the study, the blood samples were collected by retro-orbital sinus punctureand used for estimation of
serum insulin and glucose levels. Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) method was employed to calculate the degree of insulin resistance(IR).
Results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance followed by Scheffe's multiple comparison test (p<0.05).
Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract of P. marsupium and pioglitazone significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated insulin and glucose levels as
well as HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS values in dexa treated animals.
Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of P. marsupium heartwood effectively countered dexamethasone-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia.
Insulin-sensitizing activity of P. marsupium heartwood was found to be more effective than pioglitazone.
Keywords: Pterocarpus marsupium, Insulin resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia.
1. Sushma D, Randhir S. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of
Nepeta hindostana herb in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Int J
Pharm Sci 2016;8(7):330-5.
2. Rao G. Insulin resistance syndrome. Am Fam Physician
3. Macfarlane DP, Forbes S, Walker BR. Glucocorticoids and fatty acid
metabolism in humans: Fuelling fat redistribution in the metabolic
syndrome. J Endocrinol 2008;197(2):189-204.
4. Brotman DJ, Girod JP, Garcia MJ, Patel JV, Gupta M, Posch A, et al.
Effects of short-term glucocorticoids on cardiovascular biomarkers.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(6):3202-8.
5. Innes KE, Vincent HK, Taylor AG. Chronic stress and insulin
resistance-related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, Part I:
Neurophysiological responses and pathological sequelae. Altern Ther
Health Med 2007;13(4):46-52.
6. Schneiter P, Tappy L. Kinetics of dexamethasone-induced
alterations of glucose metabolism in healthy humans. Am J Physiol
7. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF,
Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: Insulin resistance and betacell
from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in
8. Kadam JS, Pati RN. Effect of Aloe vera leaf extract on alloxan induced
diabetes in young mice. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8(6):561-4.
9. Bala Chandra PS, Rajitha B, Anusha CH, Nagasirisha M, Chetty CM,
Mohamed Saleem TS. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. A potent herb for
life threatening diseases. Int J Phytochem Pharmacol 2012;2(2):75-83.
10. Patil UH, Dattatraya KG. Pterocarpus marsupium: A valuable
medicinal plant in diabetes management. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol
11. Khandelwal KR. Techniques and experiments. Practical Pharmacognosy.
Vol. 9. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008. p. 15.
12. Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidaseperoxidase
with a non-carcinogenic
13. Babu KS, Nagendra N, Hebbal GV. Hypoglycemic effect of alcohol
extract of Eugenia jambolana seed against dexamethasone induced
diabetes in rats. Int J Med Health Sci 2015;4(1):77-81.
14. Baset MA, Osama MA, Lobna AA, Margit S. Maternal rat diabetes
mellitus deleteriously affects insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function
in the offspring. J Diabetes Res 2013. Available from: http://www.
15. Pandey N, Pathak RK, Sharma NR. Comparison of commercially
available drugs for Type 2 diabetes with natural molecule from
Tinospora. Int J Pharm Sci 2016;8(7):173-5.
16. Rafacho A, Marroqui L, Taboga SR, Abrantes JL, Silveira LR,
Boschero AC, et al. Glucocorticoids in vivo induce both insulin
hypersecretion and enhanced glucose sensitivity of stimulus-secretion
coupling in isolated rat islets. Endocrinology 2010;151(1):85-95.
17. Sakoda H, Ogihara T, Anai M, Funaki M, Inukai K, Katagiri H, et al.
Dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is due
to inhibition of glucose transport rather than insulin signal transduction.
18. Nicod N, Giusti V, Besse C, Tappy L. Metabolic adaptations to
dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in healthy volunteers. Obes
Narendar et al.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Suppl. 2, 2016, 211-214
19. Rafacho A, Cestari TM, Taboga SR, Boschero AC, Bosqueiro JR. High
doses of dexamethasone induce increased beta-cell proliferation in
pancreatic rat islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2009;296(4):E681-9.
20. Oda N, Nakai A, Mokuno T, Sawai Y, Nishida Y, Mano T, et al.
Dexamethasone induced changes in glucose transporter 4 in rat
heart muscle, skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Eur J Endocrinol
21. Choi SB, Jang JS, Hong SM, Jun DW, Park S. Exercise and
dexamethasone oppositely modulate beta-cell function and survival
via independent pathways in 90% pancreatectomized rats. J Endocrinol
22. Ohneda M, Johnson JH, Inman LR, Unger RH. GLUT-2 function in
glucose-unresponsive beta cells of dexamethasone-induced diabetes in
rats. J Clin Invest 1993;92(4):1950-6.
23. Derakhshanian H, Djalali M, Djazayery A, Golpaie A, Ekhlasi G.
Quercetin improves postprandial hyperglycemia in rats treated with
high-dose glucocorticoid. Pharmacol Online 2012;2:93-7.
24. Rojas LB, Gomes MB. Metformin: An old but still the best treatment
for type 2 diabetes. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2013;5(1):6.
25. Ding SY, Shen ZF, Chen YT, Sun SJ, Liu Q, Xie MZ. Pioglitazone
can ameliorate insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and
high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin
26. Gupta V. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues: An overview. Indian J
Endocrinol Metab 2013;17(3):413-21.
27. Aksay E, Yanturali S, Bayram B, Hocaoâ„lu N, Kiyan S. A rare side
effect of metformin: Metformin induced hepatotoxicity. Turk J Med Sci
28. Desouza CV, Shivaswamy V. Pioglitazone in the treatment of Type 2
diabetes: Safety and efficacy review. Clin Med Insights Endocrinol
29. Piccinni C, Motola D, Marchesini G, Poluzzi E. Assessing the
association of pioglitazone use and bladder cancer through drug adverse
event reporting. Diabetes Care 2011;34(6):1369-71.
30. Chiu WY, Shih SR, Tseng CH. A review on the association between
glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and thyroid cancer. Exp
Diabetes Res 2012;2012:924168.
31. Gairola S, Gupta V, Singh B, Maithani M. Phytochemistry and
pharmacological activities of Pterocarpus marsupium - A review. Int
Res J Pharm 2010;1(1):100-4.
32. Atta-Ur-Rahman, Zaman K. Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic
activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26(1):1-55.
33. Maruthupandian A, Mohan VR. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic
and antioxidant activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. In alloxan
induced diabetic rats. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3(3):1681-7.
34. Singh B, Saxena A. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance: A review.
World J Diabetes 2010;1(2):36-47.
35. Mishra A, Srivastava R, Srivastava SP, Gautam S, Tamrakar AK,
Maurya R, et al. Antidiabetic activity of heartwood of Pterocarpus
marsupium Roxb. And analysis of phytoconstituents. Indian J Exp Biol
36. Manickam M, Ramanathan M, Jahromi MA, Chansouria JP, Ray AB.
Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium.
J Nat Prod 1997;60(6):609-10.
37. Halagappa K, Girish HN, Srinivasan BP. The study of aqueous extract
of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. On cytokine TNF-a in Type 2 diabetic
rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42(6):392-6.
38. Qu HQ, Li Q, Rentfro AR, Fisher-Hock SP, McCormick JB. The
definition of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR for Americans of
Mexican descent using machine learning. PLoS One 2011;6(6):e21041.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.