THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTED FROM THE LEAVES OF TEUCRIUM CAPITATUM L.
Objective: In the framework of the search for new biological molecules, an ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the region of El Hajeb in Morocco in the interest of will select the data ethnopharmacological on medicinal and aromatic plants and on the dÃ©couveres new principles assets. On the basis of a questionnaire prepared, a survey was conducted of the local population where we find a close relation which exists between the plant species described in the said region and the different types of diseases affecting the human being; six plants have been chosen to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils against the bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus, and on two yeasts: Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, which are the most frequently identified in clinical specimens, a mold: Aspergillus niger, and 5 dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum.
Methods: The extraction of essential oils was carried out by steam distillation in a clevenger-type apparatus. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method. The chromatographic analysis of HE five plants was performed with a gas chromatograph (GC) type Hewlett-Packard (6890) coupled to a mass spectrometer (HP5973).
Results:Â The resultsÂ showÂ thatÂ the essential oil of Teucrium capitatum L. has a large antimicrobial activity vis-a-vis other plants. Therefore, an identification of their chemical composition is necessary to identify the active molecules based on the analysis GC-only and coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil of the plant of T. capitatum L. of the region of El Hajeb (Morocco) was extracted to the study its performance, its chemical composition, and its property antibacterial and antifungal. The average content in essential oil of the leaves of this species is approximately
2% (wt.) of the total weight of dry matter. The chromatographic analysis showed the profiles, and the rates of the different components compared to the available standards, as function of the retention time by ascending order, four compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS as the main compounds of this oil: Endo-borneol (33%), naphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-1-(1-methyl ethyl)-, (1s-cis)-(19.63%), bronyle acetate (15.56%), alpha-terpineol (11.96%), bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-(10.94%) among other 21 compounds.
Conclusion: This study allows, once again, the development of the exploitation of the essential oils in the areas, pharmaceutical and medicines and works the doors of the exploitation of these plants in the pharmaceutical market.
Keywords: Teucrium capitatum L., Ethnobotanical study, Antifungal activity, Chromatography.
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