QUANTIFICATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC AND TOTAL FLAVONOID CONTENT OF EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTA FLOWERS
Keywords:Polyphenols, Flavonoids, Tagetes erecta, Total phenolic content, Total flavonoid content, Antioxidant
Objective: Tagetes erecta, marigold, has various ethnomedicinal uses. It has a wide variety of bioactive components such as polyphenols and flavonoids which show different bioactivities. The aim of the present study is to quantitatively estimate total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different extracts of T. erecta flowers.
Methods: Extraction was done by maceration process, sequentially from non-polar to polar. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of T. erecta flowers were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The extracts were analyzed for TPC and TFC using gallic acid and rutin as standard, respectively.
Result: Phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenolics, fats, and oils. TPC and TFC in extracts of T. erecta varies with solvents. The study revealed that methanolic extract possesses the highest phenolic content, 49.76Â±0.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, and also maximum flavonoid content, 13.43Â±0.43 mg RE/g extract, among the three extracts.
Conclusion: Higher value of phenolics and flavonoid indicates higher antioxidant activity. The present study revealed that methanolic extract has the highest phenolic and flavonoid content. This indicates that the flowers may possess a good antioxidant property and further research could be carried out.
Song JX, Sze SC, Ng TB, Lee CK, Leung GP, Shaw PC, et al. Anti- Parkinsonian drug discovery from herbal medicines: What have we got from neurotoxic models? J Ethnopharmacol 2012;139(3):698-711.
Khandelwal V, Kumar M. Biological activities of some Indian medicinal plants. J Adv Pharm Edu Res 2011;1:12-44.
Silvia M, Solange IM, Guillermo MA, Julio MS, Aguilar CN, Teixeira JA. Bioactive phenolic compounds: Production and extraction by solid-state fermentation. Biotechnol Adv 2011;29:365-73.
Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;1(6):168-82.
Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An Overview. Sci World J 2013;2013:11-2.
Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 2000;63(7):1035-42.
Khulbe A, Pandey S, Sah SP. Antidepressant-like action of the hydromethanolic flower extract of Tagetes erecta L. in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45(4):386-90.
Jain R, Katare N, Kumar V, Samanta AM, Goswami S, Shrotri CK. In vitro anti-bacterial potential of extracts of Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula. J Nat Sci Res. 2012;2(5):84-91.
Dixit P, Tripathi S, Verma KN. A brief study on marigold (Tagetes species). Int Res J Pharm 2013;4(1):43-4.
Barzana E, Rubio D, Santamaria RI, Garcia CO, Garcia F, Ridaurasanz VE, et al. Enzyme-mediated solvent extraction of carotenoids from marigold flower (Tagetes erecta). J Agric Food Chem 2002;50(16):4491-6.
Del Villar-MartÃnez AA, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, Paredes-LÃ³pez O. Marigold regeneration and molecular analysis of carotenogenic genes. Methods Mol Biol 2010;589:213-21.
Harikumar KB, Nimita CV, Preethi KC, Kuttan R, Shankaranarayana ML, Deshpande J. Toxicity profile of lutein and lutein ester isolated from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta). Int J Toxicol 2008;27(1):1-9.
Wang M, Tsao R, Zhang S, Dong Z, Yang R, Gong J, et al. Antioxidant activity, mutagenicity/anti-mutagenicity, and clastogenicity/anti-clastogenicity of lutein from marigold flowers. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(4):1522-9.
Guinot P, Gargadennec A, Valette G, Fruchier A, Andary C. Primary flavonoids in marigold dye: Extraction, structure and involvement in the dyeing process. Phytochem Anal 2008;19(1):46-51.
Valyova M, Stoyanov S, Markovska Y, Ganeva Y. Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of variety of Tagetes erecta L. Flowers growing in Bulgaria. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2012;5(2):19-25.
Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy, 23. Practical Pharmacognosy, 16th ed. Pune: Nirali Publishers; 1993. p. 493-7.
Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Nat Protoc 2007;2(4):875-7.
Alhakmani F, Kumar S, Khan SA. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3(8):623-7.
Zhiesen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64(4):555-9.
Figueroa LA, Navarro LB, Vera MP, Petricevich VL. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and cytotoxicity evaluation of Bougainvillea xbuttiana. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(5):497-572.
Habila JD, Bello IA, Ndukwe IG, Amupitan JO, Abubakar N. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Leucas martinicensis (Linn). Int J Pure Appl Sci 2010;4(1):64-7.
Pracheta VS, Paliwal R, Sharma S. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3(1):238-42.
Tapas AR, Sakarkar DM, Kakde RB. Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: A Review. Trop J Pharm Res 2008;7(3):1089-99.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.