NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE (CASHEW APPLE FRUIT) AGAINST ALUMINUM TOXICITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN RATS


Gade Kalyani, Bhagyasree P

Abstract


ABSTRACT
Objective: To study the protective role of fruit extract of Anacardium occidentale (cashew apple) in aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and
oxidative damage in albino rat, and to explore the neuroprotective effect of A. occidentale represented by behavior and memory tests.
Methods: Male Wistar rats (30) were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group I received normal saline. Group II was administered orally with
aluminum chloride (100 mg/kg). Group III received rivastigmine 0.3 mg/kg body orally. Groups IV and V were administered with A. occidentale
200 and 400 mg/kg along with aluminum chloride of 100 mg/kg orally after 1 hr interval. The study was carried out for 42 days (6 weeks). The
behavioral assessment was performed using Rota-rod apparatus and Elevated plus maze and Biochemical parameters from brain homogenate such as
acetylcholinesterase activity, total protein, lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR)
were estimated. All the data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test.
Results: The % reduction of acetylcholinesterase, GR observed in A.O (400 mg/kg) dose as compared with that of standard drug was found to be
87.5% and 89%, respectively, whereas % reduction of catalase and SOD observed in A.O (400 mg/kg) dose as compared with that of standard drug
was found to be 97% and 99%, respectively.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates A. occidentale fruit has a neuroprotective effect against aluminum-induced behavioral changes.
Keywords: Occidentale, Neuroprotective, Alzheimer’s disease, Aluminum.


| PDF |

References


REFERENCES

Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Ziegler-Graham K, Arrighi HM. Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2007;3(3):186-91.

Bharathi, Shamasundar NM, Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Dhanunjaya Naidu M, Ravid R, Rao KS. A new insight on Al-maltolate-treated aged rabbit as Alzheimer’s animal model. Brain Res Rev 2006;52(2):275-92.

Akinwale T. Cashew apple juice: Its use in fortifying the nutritional quality of some tropical fruits. Eur Food Res Technol 2000;211(3):205-7.

Okonkwo TJ, Okorie O, Okonta JM, Okonkwo CJ. Sub-chronic hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) inner stem bark extract in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72(3):353-7.

Giordano R, Costantini S. Some aspects related to the presence of aluminium in waters. Ann Ist Super Sanita 1993;29(2):305-11.

Tédong L, Dzeufiet PD, Dimo T, Asongalem EA, Sokeng SN, Flejou JF, et al. Acute and subchronic toxicity of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) leaves hexane extract in mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2006;4(2):140-7.

Paulbabu K, Singh KD, Prashanti P, Padmaja M. Neuroprotective potential and efficacy of neurodegenerative disorders of fruit extract of aegle marmelos. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;7:155-9.

Kassab RB, Bauomy AA. The neuroprotective efficiency of the aqueous extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in aluminium-induced neurotoxicity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(5):503-8.

Bjertness E, Candy JM, Torvik A, Ince P, McArthur F, Taylor GA, et al. Content of brain aluminum is not elevated in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1996;10(3):171-4.

Harborne JB, Baxter H. The Handbook of Natural Flavonoids. Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Wiley Interscience; 1999. p. 1-114.

Nade VS, Kawale LA, Shendye NV, Patil NR. Protective effect of nebivolol on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(5):386-91.

Carageorgiou H, Sideris AC, Messari I, Liakou CI, Tsakiris S. The effects of rivastigmine plus selegiline on brain acetylcholinesterase, (Na, K)-, Mg-ATPase activities, antioxidant status, and learning performance of aged rats. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2008;4(4):687-99.

McLachlan DR, Bergeron C, Smith JE, Boomer D, Rifat SL. Risk for neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease and residual aluminium in municipal drinking water employing weighted residential histories. Neurology 1996;46(2):401-5.

Krewski D, Yokel RA, Nieboer E, Borchelt D, Cohen J, Harry J, et al. Human health risk assessment for aluminium, aluminium oxide, and aluminium hydroxide. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2007;10 Suppl 1:1-269.

Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr, Feather-Stone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 1961;7:88-95.

Globus MY, Alonsa O, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Ginesberg MD. Glutamate release and free radical production following brain injury: Effects on post traumatic hypothermia. J Nuerochem 1995;65(4):1704-11.

Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. Am J Med 1991;91(3C):14S-22.

Dringen R. Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain. Prog Neurobiol 2000;62(6):649-71.

Kawahara M, Muramoto K, Kobayashi K, Mori H, Kuroda Y. Aluminum promotes the aggregation of Alzheimer’s amyloid beta-protein in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;198(2):531-5.

Sharma AC, Kulkarni SK. Evaluation of learning and memory mechanisms employing elevated plus-maze in rats and mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1992;16(1):117-25.

Okechukwu NP. Hypoglycemic and free radical scavenging activity of partially purified fraction E from DCM stem extract of Cosinium fenestratum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(4):30-6.




About this article

Title

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE (CASHEW APPLE FRUIT) AGAINST ALUMINUM TOXICITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN RATS

DOI

10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i3.15937

Date

01-03-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 3 March 2017 Page: 164-169

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Statistics

74 Views | 86 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Gade Kalyani
Research scohlar, University college of pharmaceutical sciences, Acharya nagarjuna university.
India

Bhagyasree P


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.