EFFECT OF PIPERINE ON GOAT EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA: AN IN VITRO STUDY
Â Objective: Fertility control is a global issue in the perspective of health and economy worldwide. Many of the investigations were carried out to prove the anti-fertility effect of the traditional natural products in males. Until today, there is no such reversible contraceptive is available for males. Piperine is a versatile bioactive compound being used from the centuries to treat domestic animal illness as well as in humans. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of piperine on goat epididymal spermatozoa in vitro.
Methods: Goat sperms were incubated with piperine at the doses of 40 Î¼mol/L, 60 Î¼mol/L, 80 Î¼mol/L, 100 Î¼mol/L for 3 hrs. After 3 hrs parameters such as motility, viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was monitored. Hypo-smotic swelling test and acridine orange test were performed.
Results: Significant decrease in motility, viability, SOD, CAT activities of goat epididymal sperm was observed after 3 hrs of incubation with piperine. Significant increase in LPO levels was found after 3 hrs of incubation with piperine at above mentioned doses. Piperine produced significant disruption in the functional integrity and also damaged the DNA of goat epididymal sperm.
Conclusion: From the above results, we can conclude that increase in the oxidative damage and functional disruption of sperm by piperine might be one of the reasons for its anti-fertility activity.
Keywords: Piperine, Anti-fertility agent, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Lipid peroxidation.
Gupta RS, Kachhawa JB, Chaudhary R. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats. Asian J Androl 2004;6(2):155-9.
Gupta RS, Kachhawa JB, Chaudhary R. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats. Phytomedicine 2006;13(4):277-83.
Gupta RS, Kachhawa JB, Sharma A. Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats. J Herb Pharmacother 2007;7(2):1-13.
Hess RA, Renato de Franca L. Spermatogenesis and cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008;636:1-15.
Ge R, Chen G, Hardy MP. The role of the Leydig cell in spermatogenic function. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008;636:255-69.
Dacheux JL, Castella S, Gatti JL, Dacheux F. Epididymal cell secretory activities and the role of proteins in boar sperm maturation. Theriogenology 2005;63(2):319-41.
Toshimori K. Biology of spermatozoa maturation: An overview with an introduction to this issue. Microsc Res Tech 2003;61(1):1-6.
Gatti JL, Castella S, Dacheux F, Ecroyd H, MÃ©tayer S, Thimon V, et al. Post-testicular sperm environment and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2004;82-83:321-39.
Flesch FM, Gadella BM. Dynamics of the mammalian sperm plasma membrane in the process of fertilization. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1469(3):197-235.
Bandyopadyay U, Das D, Benerjee RK. Reactive oxygen species: Oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Curr Sci 1999;77(5):658-66.
Garg A, Kumaresan A, Ansari MR. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on fresh and cryopreserved buffalo sperm functions during incubation at 37 degrees C in vitro. Reprod Domest Anim 2009;44(6):907-12.
Lenzi A, Gandini L, Picardo M, Tramer F, Sandri G, Panfili E. Lipoperoxidation damage of spermatozoa polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): Scavenger mechanisms and possible scavenger therapies. Front Biosci 2000;5:E1-E15.
Sanocka D, Kurpisz M. Reactive oxygen species and sperm cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2004;2:12.
Comaschi V, Lindner L, Farruggia G, Gesmundo N, Colombi L, Masotti L. An investigation on lipoperoxidation mechanisms in boar spermatozoa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989;158(3):769-75.
Vernet P, Fulton N, Wallace C, Aitken RJ. Analysis of reactive oxygen species generating systems in rat epididymal spermatozoa. Biol Reprod 2001;65(4):1102-13.
Aitken RJ, Fisher HM, Fulton N, Gomez E, Knox W, Lewis B, et al. Reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa is induced by exogenous NADPH and inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitors diphenylene iodonium and quinacrine. Mol Reprod Dev 1997;47(4):468-82.
Turner TT, Johnston DS, Jelinsky SA. Epididymal genomics and the search for a male contraceptive. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006;250(1 2):178-83.
Patil UK, Singh A, Chakraborthy AK. Role of piperine as a bioavailability enhancer. Int J Recent Adv Pharm Res 2011;4:16-23.
Mishra RK, Singh SK. Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47(9):706-14.
Berlinguer F, Madeddu M, Pasciu V, Succu S, Spezzigu A, Satta V, et al. Semen molecular and cellular features: These parameters can reliably predict subsequent ART outcome in a goat model. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2009;7:125.
Lee E, Shin K, Woo W. Pharmacological study on piperine. Arch Pharmcol Res 1984;7:127-32.
McNamara FN, Randall A, Gunthorpe MJ. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Br J Pharmacol 2005;144(6):781-90.
Bajad S, Bedi KL, Singla AK, Johri RK. Antidiarrhoeal activity of piperine in mice. Planta Med 2001;67(3):284-7.
SzolcsÃ¡nyi J, BarthÃ³ L. Capsaicin-sensitive afferents and their role in gastroprotection: An update. J Physiol Paris 2001;95(1-6):181-8.
Munshi SR, Rao SS. Antifertility activity of an indigenous plantpreparation (ROC-101). I. Effect on reproduction. Indian J Med Res 1972;60(7):1054-60.
Malini T, Manimaran RR, Arunakaran J, Aruldhas MM, Govindarajulu P. Effects of piperine on testis of albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64(3):219-25.
Dâ€™cruz SC, Mathur PP. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats. Asian J Androl 2005;7(4):363-8.
Dâ€™Cruz SC, Vaithinathan S, Saradha B, Mathur PP. Piperine activates testicular apoptosis in adult rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2008;22(6):382 8.
Piyachaturawat P, Sriwattana W, Damrongphol P, Pholpramool C. Effects of piperine on hamster sperm capacitation and fertilization in vitro. Int J Androl 1991;14(4):283-90.
Daware MB, Mujumdar AM, Ghaskadbi S. Reproductive toxicity of piperine in Swiss albino mice. Planta Med 2000;66(3):231-6.
Roy N, Majumder GC, Chakrabarti CK. Occurrence of specific glycoprotein factor(s) in goat epididymal plasma that prevent adhesion of spermatozoa to glass. Andrologia 1985;17(2):200-6.
Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47(3):469-74.
Caalriborne A. Hand Book for Methods of Oxygen Radical Research. Bocaraton: CRC Press; 1985.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95(2):351 8.
Jeyendran RS, Van der Ven HH, Perez-Pelaez M, Crabo BG, Zaneveld LJ. Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. J Reprod Fertil 1984;70(1):219-28.
Tejada RI, Mitchell JC, Norman A, Marik JJ, Friedman S. A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence. Fertil Steril 1984;42(1):87-91.
Gharagozloo P, Aitken RJ. The role of sperm oxidative stress in male infertility and the significance of oral antioxidant therapy. Hum Reprod 2011;26(7):1628-40.
Shinde A, Ghanu J, Naik P. Effect of free radicals and anti-oxidants on oxidative stress: A review. J Dent Alleid Sci 2012;1(2):63-6.
Badade Z, Samant P. Role of oxidative stress in male fertility. J Biomed Sci Res 2011;3:385-92.
Gangadharan B, Murugan MA, Mathur PP. Effect of methoxychlor on antioxidant system of goat epididymal sperm in vitro. Asian J Androl 2001;3(4):285-8.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.