HEMOGLOBIN STATUS OF FEMALE MEDICOS IN URBAN AREA AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT: AN OBSERVATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Objectives: Estimating the hemoglobin (Hb) status in female medicos through prospective cross-sectional study and assessment of influencing of
cofactors were objectives.
Methods: Women medicos who volunteered, consented and met selection criteria were enrolled. Hb level was estimated to diagnose anemia.
Relationship with influencing factors was assessed statistically.
Result: A total of 100 eligible students were enrolled. Mean ageÂ±standard deviation (SD) age of the participants' was 20.9Â±3.1 years (17-25 years).
MeanÂ±SD Hb was 12.25Â±1.0189 g% (9.0-16.0 g%). 33 were anemic, and mild anemia (32%) was frequent. There was a history of worm infestation in
three students (3%), who were treated adequately. Nine were on iron supplements of which five were still anemic and were continuing the treatment
by the end of the study. 28 (84.84%) anemic students were not on any iron or hematinic treatment. There was no association between the anemia
and nature of diet, consumption of green leafy vegetables, consumption of coffee/tea after food, smoking/tobacco or alcohol consumption, mother's
education, socioeconomic status, menstrual factors, and physical exercise. The prevalence of anemia was found to be higher in underweight and
overweight students in comparison to students with normal body mass index.Asymptomatic participants (n=78) outnumbered symptomatic ones
(n=22), but without any statistical significance. Easy fatigability (14%), pallor (7%), breathlessness (6%), weakness (9%), and easy bruising (1%)
were frequent complaints.
Conclusion: Anemia is frequent among women medicos, often underdiagnosed, under-reported, many remaining asymptomatic. Negligence of
medical students toward their anemic status despite the awareness of consequences of low Hb level is a serious cause of concern.
Keywords: Awareness, Hemoglobin, Nutritional anemia, Women medical students.
Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M, editors. Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993â€“2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. World Health Organization. (NLM Classification: WH 155). Available from: http://www.whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/97892415966 57_eng.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 19].
Parasuraman S, Kishor S, Vaidehi Y. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) India 2005-6, Gujarat. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of India: Gujarat National Family Health Survey India (2005-2006). International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International; 2008. p. 122. Available from: http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS3%20Data/gujarat_state_report_for_website.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 19].
Kaur S, Deshmukh PR, Garg BS. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anaemia in adolescent girls of rural Wardha. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:255-8.
Mehta K. Prevalence of nutritional anemia among college students and its correlation with their body mass index. Int J Sci Res 2015;4:1882-6.
Panat AV, Pathare SA, Asrar S, Rhokale GY. Iron deficiency among rural college girls: A result of poor nutrition and prolonged menstruation. J Community Nutr Health 2013;2:56-60.
Saratha A, Singh Z, Datta S, Boratne AV, Senthilvel V. Prevalence of anaemia among young adult female students in a medical teaching institution in Pondicherry. Indian J Mater Child Health 2010;12(4):1-8.
Kuppuswamy B. Manual of Socioeconomic Status. New Delhi: Manasayan; 1981.
Kumar BP, Dudala SR, Rao AR. Kuppuswamyâ€™s socio-economic status scale - A revision of economic parameter for 2012. Int J Res Dev Health 2013;1(1):2-4.
WHO. Haemoglobin Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Anaemia and Assessment of Severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.1). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Available from: http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin.pdf. [Last accessed 2016 Nov 19].
Bhanushali MM, Shirode AR, Joshi YM, Kadam VJ. An intervention on iron deficiency anemia and change in dietary behavior among adolescent girls. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3(1):402.
Singh LL, Bhat PN, Ram F, Paswan B. Nutritional status of children and prevalence of anemia among children, adolescent girls and pregnant women. District Level Household Survey on Reproduction and Child Health. India 2002-2004. International Institute for Population Sciences (Deemed University), Mumbai. New Delhi, India: India and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. Available from: http://www.rchiips.org/pdf/rch2/national_nutrition_report_rch-ii.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 19].
Abedini S, Noraddin SH, Mohseni SH. The effect of education on knowledge of high school femaleâ€™s students of sirik about iron deficiency anemia. J Dev Strateg Med Educ 2015;2:20-5.
Chathuranga G, Balasuriya T, Perera R. Anaemia among female undergraduates residing in the hostels of university of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Anemia 2014;2014:526308.
Vasanthi G, Pawashe AB, Susie H, Sujatha T, Raman L. Iron nutritional status of adolescent girls from rural area and urban slum. Indian Pediatr 1994;31(2):127-32.
Chaturvedi S, Kapil U, Gnanasekaran N, Sachdev HP, Pandey RM, Bhanti T. Nutrient intake amongst adolescent girls belonging to poor socioeconomic group of rural area of Rajasthan. Indian Pediatr 1996;33(3):197-201.
Teoteja GS, Singh P. Micronutrient Profile in Indian Population (Part-I). New Delhi: Indian Council Medical Research; 2002. p. 131-40.
Aggarwal KN. Assessment of Prevalence of Anaemia and Iron in Response to Daily/Weakly iron Folate Supplement in Adolescent Girls (10-18) from Urban Slums of North Delhi. UNICEF; 1998. p. 1-9.
Rajaratnam J, Abel R, Asokan JS, Jonathan P. Prevalence of anaemia among girls of Tamil Nadu. Indian Pediatr 2000;37(5):532-6.
Seshadri SA. Database on iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in India: Prevalence, causes, consequences and strategies for prevention. WHO Collaborating Centre for Nutrition Research. Vadodara, India: Department of Foods and Nutrition, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda; 1999.
Sivakumar B, Brahmam GN, Madhavan Nair K, Ranganathan S, Vishnuvardhan Rao M, Vijayaraghavan K, et al. Prospects of fortification of salt with iron and iodine. Br J Nutr 2001;85 Suppl 2:S167-73.
Gawarikar RS, Gawarikar SB, Tripathi BC. Prevalence of anaemia in adolescent girls of Ujjain in Western M.P. Indian J Nutr Diet 2002;39:493-9.
Sidhu S, Kumari K, Uppal M. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls of scheduled caste community of Punjab. Anthropol J 2005;7:265-7.
Chaudhary SM, Dhage VR. A study of anemia among adolescent females in the Urban area of Nagpur. Indian J Community Med 2008;33:243-5.
Toteja GS, Singh P, Dhillon BS, Saxena BN, Ahmed FU, Singh RP, et al. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India. Food Nutr Bull 2006;27(4):311-5.
Bulliyy G, Mallick G, Sethy GS, Kar SK. Hemoglobin status of non-school going adolescent girls in three districts of Orissa, India. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2007;19(4):395-406.
Saxena Y, Shrivastava A, Saxena V. Effect of gender on correlation of anaemia with body mass index in medical students. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2011;55(4):364-9.
Pandey S, Singh A. A cross sectional study of nutritional anaemia among medical students in a medical college at Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh. Natl J Med Res 2013;3(2):143-6.
Bano R, Ahmed N, Sharma BC, Agarwal A. Nutritional anemia in the medical students. Indian Med Gaz 2012;145(1):16-8.
Bano R, Waseem SM, Ahmad N. Study of haemoglobin status in first and second year MBBS students. Res Rev J Med 2015;5:16-8.
Khan B, Sukshohale ND, Jawade P. Prevalence of anemia among undergraduate medical students of Central India. GJRA Glob J Res Anal 2015;4(5):13-4.
Thomsen K, Riis B, Krebbe S, Christiansen C. Testosterone regulates the hemoglobin concentration in male puberty. Acta Paediatr Scand 1986;75(5):793-6.
Verma A, Rawal VS, Kedia G, Kumar D, Chauhan J. Factors influencing anemia among girls of school going age (6-18 years) from the slums of Ahmadabad city. Indian J Community Med 2004;29(1):25-6.
Lukanova A, Lundin E, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A. Body mass index, circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3: A cross-sectional study in healthy women. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;150(2):161-71.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.