A COMPARITIVE STUDY BETWEEN EPIDURAL BUTORPHANOL, NALBUPHINE AND FENTANYL FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES
Background: Achieving satisfactory post-operative analgesia with neuraxial administration of narcotics has been the subject of much research. The use of epidural opioids had become an increasingly popular technique for management of acute post-operative pain in recent times. This study evaluates post-operative analgesic benefits in patients administered epidural butorphanol, nalbuphine, and fentanyl as adjuvants with local anesthetics postoperatively for surgery under epidural anesthesia.
Methods: A total of 75 patients belonging to age groups 18-60 years who were scheduled for surgeries of lower abdomen were randomly divided into groups of 25 each. Epidural technique was adopted for surgery of the lower abdomen for all patients with 0.5% bupivacaine. In the post-operative period, the study drug was given through epidural catheter. Group A received butorphanol 2 mg, Group B received fentanyl 100 Î¼g, and Group C received nalbuphine 10 mg with 0.125% bupivacaine diluted to 10 ml in normal saline each. Onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic changes, and side effects â€“ such as sedation, pruritus, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, and urinary retention - were recorded and compared.
Results: The demographic data were comparable in all three groups. The onset of sensory block was significantly earlier in Group B (fentanyl) than other two groups. Duration was significantly longer in Group A (butorphanol). No serious cardiorespiratory side effects were noted in any of groups.
Conclusion: Fentanyl produces the faster onset of analgesia with adverse effects like pruritus. Butorphanol administered epidurally has the advantage of longer duration of analgesia than fentanyl or epidural nalbuphine with side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and sedation.
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