EFFECT OF CANNA INDICA L. EXTRACT AGAINST CAFFEINE-NICOTINE CO-ADMINISTRATION-INDUCED EXAGGERATION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Canna indica L. extract against caffeine-nicotine administration-induced type 2 diabetes exaggeration in rats.
Methods: A study was conducted for three weeks in four rat groups (n=6); viz.Â type 2 diabetic control group, a caffeine-nicotine diabetic control group (20mg/kg, 0.4mg/kg, ip twice daily), Â and Canna indica L. extract and caffeine-nicotine treatment group and Â standard drug treated caffeine-nicotine diabetic group (Glibencamide, 5mg/kg, once daily). Type 2 diabetes was induced by two weeks high fatty diet and a single dose streptozotocin (50mg/kg, ip) on 1th day of the study in all groups. Blood and urine samples were collected every week for serum biochemical analysis.
Results: Results of extract treatment and standard drug treatment were compared with untreated caffeine-nicotine co-administration group. Difference in each relevant serum parameter was analyzed through ANOVA and Dunettâ€™s t test. Extract treated caffeine-nicotine-diabetic group showed about 150-200mg/dL (p<0.001) reduction in the serum glucose than untreated caffeine-nicotine-diabetic control group. Extract treatment reduces serum glucose by 10-15 mg/dL than glibenclamide treatment with higher significance (p<0.001). Extract treatment showed better results than standard drug in liver and kidney function test and exhibited its better potential in controlling diabetic complications. Extract treatment increased HDL-C and reduced triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and TC much better and with higher significance than standard drug. Extract treatment reduced TC by at least 60-80mg/dL (p<0.01) in comparison to caffeine-nicotine-diabetic control group. Extract treatment reduced 10-15mg/dL of more total cholesterol than that of standard drug.
Conclusion: Caffeine-nicotine co-administration-induced exaggeration of type 2 diabetes was better treated by CI extract than that of standard drug gibenclamide.Â
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Streptozotocin, Caffeine, Nicotine, Diabetic complication, Rat
2. Sone H, Mizuno S, Ohashi Y, Yamada N. Type 2 diabetes prevalence in
AQ1Asian subjects. Diabetes Care 2004;27(5):1251-2.
3. Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C. Epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 2007;125(3):217-30.
4. Gupta M. Impact of meal replacement on the health status of Type II diabetes. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2014;6(4):79-82.
5. Jorwal P, Verma R, Balhara YP. Psychological health of caregivers of individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional comparative study. J Soc Health Diabetes 2015;3(2):95-101.
6. Li W, Hui R. Cigarette smoking induces insulin resistance: Partly via ASP-C5L2 pathway? Biosci Hypotheses 2009;2(4):267-9.
7. Kumbhar ST, Une HD, Joshi AM, Wangikar PB. Exaggeration of Type 2 diabetes due to caffeine-nicotine co-administration: A study in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(9):277-81.
8. Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Devasagayam TP. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;40(3):163-73.
9. Rahmatullah M, Mollik MA, Azam AT, Islam MR, Chowdhury MA, Jahan R, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon District, Bangladesh. Am Eurasian J Sustain Agric 2009;3(3):889-98.
10. Purintrapiban J, Suttajit M, Forsberg NE. Differential activation of glucose transport in cultured muscle cells by polyphenolic compounds from Canna indica L. root. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(10):1995-8.
11. Mishra S, Yadav A, Singh SK. A review on Canna indica Linn: Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile. J Harmon Res Pharm 2013;2(2):131-44.
12. Al-Snafi AE. Bioactive components and pharmacological effects of Canna indica - an overview. Pharm Toxicol 2015;5(2):71-5.
13. Kumbhar ST, Une HD, Patil SP, Joshi AM. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Canna indica L. root and rhizomes in rat. Eur J Pharm Med Res 2016;4(1):480-9.
14. Eddouks M, Bidi A, El Bouhali B, Hajji L, Zeggwagh NA. Antidiabetic plants improving insulin sensitivity. J Pharm Pharmacol 2014;66(9):1197-214.
15. SkovsÃ¸ S. Modeling Type 2 diabetes in rats using high fat diet and streptozotocin. J Diabetes Investig 2014;5(4):349-58.
16. Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, et al. Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007;190(3):269-319.
17. Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Polyphenols and glycemic control. Nutrients 2016;8(1). pii: E17.
18. Betteridge DJ. Diabetic dyslipidaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab 2000;2 Suppl 1:S31-6.
19. Hahn SJ, Park JH, Lee JH, Lee JK, Kim KA. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic ketoacidosis accompanied by acute pancreatitis: Case report. J Korean Med Sci 2010;25(9):1375-8.
20. Castelli WP, Garrison RJ, Wilson PW, Abbott RD, Kalousdian S, Kannel WB. Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The framingham study. JAMA 1986;256(20):2835-8.
21. Dhaliwall C, Erinmacpherson, Richardson J. Effectiveness of telephone-delivered interventions for increasing physical activity levels in persons with Type 2 diabetes or hypertension: A systematic review. J Crit Rev 2015;2(4):6-11.
22. Mbaoji FN, Ezike AC, Nworu CS, Onyeto CA, Nwabunike IA, Okoli IC, et al. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials of Stemonocoleus micranthus harms (Fabaceae) stem bark extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(7):47-51.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.