BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS USES IN INHIBITING BIOFILM FORMATION
Pathogenic micro-organisms have become the main problem in todayâ€™s world. All microbes are getting resistant to antibiotics. This is due to the
formation of biofilm layer above the micro-organisms. Learning the characteristics of biofilm can help us in treating the infectious disease induced via micro-organisms. They affect humanâ€™s life in some or the other way. For example, the plaque formed in our teeth that cause tooth decay is due to the
bacterial biofilm. When micro-organisms stick to moist or wet surfaces, it produces glue-like, slimy contents which are known as biofilms. Biofilms
belong to the sessile communities, communities in which organisms are considered as immobile. Biofilms are enclosed within a matrix, known as
extracellular polymeric matrix, which are secreted by micro-organisms. Biofilms attached to the surfaces are affected by certain characteristics like
the growth medium, substratum to which it is attached and cellular surfaces. Each of these factors can either increase or decrease the hold of biofilm
on the surfaces. With the help of biofilms, micro-organisms protect themselves from antibiotics and cause various infectious disease. Recent studies had proved medicinal plants to be effective in treating disease caused by microbes. Medicinal plants produce active compounds during secondary
metabolism which help in the treatment of infectious disease. The problem that arises with antibiotics is that they are unable to penetrate through the
biofilm. This problem is solved by converting antibiotics in nanoparticle size. Nanoparticles have high penetrating ability than the antibiotics. They
help in controlling microbial growth by killing them.
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Flower extract Silver nanoparticle Anticholinesterase, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities 
Bauhinia acuminata and Biophytum sensitivum Plant extract Silver nanoparticle Antimicrobial activity  Taraxacum laevigatum Plant extract Platinum nanoparticle Antibacterial activity 
Pongamia pinnata Seeds extract Silver nanoparticle Antibacterial activity  Cassia fistula (Linn.)
Leaf extract Silver nanoparticle Antimicrobial agents; antioxidants
 Panax ginseng Leaf extract, root extract Silver nanoparticle, gold nanoparticle
Anticancer activity, antimicrobial, antibacterial and antiviral properties, anticoagulant properties, and antibiofilm activity [22,7,41] Carum copticum Root extract MnFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with PEGylated chitosan Antibacterial activity  Ginkgo biloba Leaf extract Silver nanoparticles
Antimicrobial activity  Garcinia mangostana Rind extract Gold nanoparticles Antimicrobial activity  Cacao Leaf extract Silver nanoparticles Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity
 Prunella vulgaris L. Callus culture Silver and gold nanoparticles Antioxidant  Cassytha filiformis Plant extract Silver nanoparticles Anticancer, antifungal, antimicrobial activity
 Trigonella foenumâ€‘graecum Seed extract Lanthanum nanoparticles Antibacterial activity
 Artocarpus lacucha Plant extract Alginateâ€‘chitosan nanoparticles Antibacterial activity
 Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort Plant extract Silver and gold nanoparticles Antiâ€‘leukemic activity
 Linum usitatissimum Plant extract ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanoparticles Antibacterial, antifungal, and antimicrobial activities  Carissa edulis Plant extract Zinc oxide nanoparticles Antibacterial and antioxidant activitives  Jacaranda mimosifolia Flowers extract Zinc oxide nanoparticles
Antibacterial activity  Hydrocotyle rotundifolia Leaf extract Silver nanoparticles Antimicrobial activity  Rhus chinensis Galls extract Silver nanoparticles Antibacterial activity
 Dendropanax morbifera Leaf extract Silver and gold nanoparticles Anticancer activity
 Isatis tinctoria Plant extract Silver nanoparticles Antileishmanial activity
 Nothapodytes foetida Leaf extract Silver nanoparticles Antimicrobial activity 
Hovenia dulcis Plant extract Silver nanoparticles Antibacterial activity  Syzygium cumini
Plant extract Silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles Antitubercular agents, antimycobacterial agent 
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