ANTIBACTERIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES AT A GENERAL HOSPITAL IN PADANG, WEST SUMATRA, INDONESIA
Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has an innate resistance to some antibiotics. This bacterium is one of the mostcommon causes of nosocomial infections that include surgical wound infections, burns, and urinary tract infections. The bacteria have been reportedlyresistant to many antibiotics and have developed multidrug resistance (MDR). The objective of the study was to determine the resistance pattern ofP. aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples of patients against some major antibiotics.
Methods: Isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from clinical sample of urine, sputum, swabs, pus, feces, and blood and cultured in cetrimide agar. P.aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was used as a positive control. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was conducted against 13 antibiotics: Ceftazidime, cefotaxime,ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, piperacillin, ticarcillin, meropenem, and imipenem. The examinationwas carried out using agar diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer and following the standards from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
Results: The results showed that bacterial resistance was established against all tested antibiotics. The highest number of resistance was shownagainst ceftriaxone (44.21%), whereas the most susceptibility was exhibited against amikacin (only 9.47% of resistance). MDR P. aeruginosa (MDRPA)was detected on almost all clinical samples tested, except the feces. The sample with the highest percentage of MDRPA was the pus.
Conclusion: The study concludes that the most effective antibiotic against P. aeruginosa is amikacin (91.51%), whereas the most resistance is exhibited to ceftriaxone (43.16%).
Strateva T, Yordanov D. Pseudomonas aeruginosaâ€“a phenomenon of bacterial resistance. J Med Microbiol 2009;58(9):1133-48.
Dawra R, Sharma R, Bachhiwal R, Vyas A. High Incidence of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Burn Wounds in a Tertiary Hospital. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2017;6(2):1134-9.
Rathod VS, Raut SS. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains among bacterial isolates in burn wound swabs in a tertiary care centre, Nanded, Maharashtra, India. Int J Res Med Sci 2017;5(3):973-7.
Falagas ME, Kopterides P. Risk factors for the isolation of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a systematic review of the literature. J Hosp Infect 2006;64(1):7-15.
Biswal I, Arora BS, Dimple Kasana N. Incidence of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients and environment of teaching institution. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8(5):26-9.
Aniis K, Kcp R, Prasanth DA. Prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative bacilli from clinical samples. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9(14):176-8.
Soleha M, Elvistra HL, Fitri N, Triyani. Patterns of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in Jakarta. Proceeding Center for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical 2009; Jakarta: Health Research Agency.
Falagas ME, Karageorgopoulos DE. Pandrug resistance (PDR), extensive drug resistance (XDR), and multidrug resistance (MDR) among Gram-negative bacilli: need for international harmonization in terminology. Clin Infec Dis 2008;46(7):1121-2.
Kalaivani R, Shashikala P, Devi S, Prashanth K, Saranathan R. Phenotypic assays for detection of ESBL and MBL producers among the clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary care hospital. Int J Curr Res Rev 2013;5(17):28-35.
Sjahjadi NR, Rasyid R, Rustam E, Restusari L. Prevalensi Kuman Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari 2010-Desember 2012 (The prevalence of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) germs in the department of Microbiology M. Djamil Hospital Padang in January 2010 - December 2012). Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas 2014;3(3):440-4.
Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. 2012. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests: Approved standard-eleventh Edition. CLSI Document M02-A11.
Gillespie SH. Antibiotic resistance: methods and protocols. Springer Science & Business Media; 2001.
Baker CN, Stocker SA, Culver DH, Thornsberry C. Comparison of the E Test to agar dilution, broth microdilution, and agar diffusion susceptibility testing techniques by using a special challenge set of bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29(3):533-8.
Bonev B, Hooper J, Parisot J. Principles of assessing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics using the agar diffusion method. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61(6):1295-301.
Akingbade OA, Balogun SA, Ojo DA, Afolabi RO, Motayo BO, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound infections in South West, Nigeria. World Appl Sci J. 2012;20(6):766-75.
Sadawarte K, Dadarya S, Prabhu T. Antibacterial resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa co-isolated with other aerobic bacteria from burn wounds in tertiary care hospital. JEMDS 2014;3(2):464-8.
Prabhakar P, Jamatia A, Shil R, Roy D. Bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance patterns isolates in pus samples at Agartala Government Medical College. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;10(1):335-7.
Bassetti D, Cruciani M, Solbiati M, Rubini F, Gandola L, Valenti G, De Palma M, Corda R, Carimeo N. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftriaxone versus Ceftazidime in the Treatment of Nosocomial Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Chemother 1991;5(37):371-5.
Mody L, Bradley SF, Strausbaugh LJ, Muder RR. Prevalence of Ceftriaxone-and Ceftazidime-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria in Long-Termâ€“Care Facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22(4):193-4.
Jayanthi S, Jeya M. Plasmid Profile Analysis and bla VIM Gene Detection of Metalo Î²-lactamase (MBL) Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Clinical Samples. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8(6):16-9.
Koura BA, Zaghloul MHE, Noha, EM. Plasmid profile of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in a burn unit. Molecular Diagnosis and Vaccines 2003;1(1):59-70.
Mahmoud AB, Zahran WA, Hindawi GR, Labib AZ, Galal R. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with nosocomial infections at a university hospital in Egypt, with special reference to typing methods. J Virol Microbiol 2013;1-13.
World Health Organization (2001) WHO global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance. Available at: http://wwwwhoint/drugresistance/WHO_Global_Strategy_Englishpdf (accessed 6 March 2017).
Kotwani A, Wattal C, Joshi PC, Holloway K. Irrational use of antibiotics and role of the pharmacist: an insight from a qualitative study in New Delhi, India. J Clin Pharm Ther 2012;37(3):308-12.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.