ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF ELETTARIA CARDAMOM OIL ON CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED PAW EDEMA USING RATS BASED ON TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR Î±, INTERLEUKIN 6, AND INTERLEUKIN 1 LEVELS IN SERUM
Â Objective: In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Elettaria cardamom oil and the underlying mechanism using in vivo models of inflammation.
Methods: Male Spragueâ€“Dawley rats, 4-6 weeks old, weighing 120-130 gms are used for the study. The anti-inflammatory study of E. cardamom oil was studied by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan to the subplantar region of the right hind paw of rats. The development of acute inflammation was measured at the end of every 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th h using plethysmometer.
Results: As results from the above study, E. cardamom oil at a dose of 0.175 ml/kg was less significant than that of E. cardamom oil at a dose of 0.280 ml/kg when given orally. A p<0.05 shows a significant decrease in paw edema. It also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor Î±, interleukin (IL) 1, and IL 6 levels in the serum. The histopathology results also showed a significant reduction of congested blood vessels with no marked impression for inflammation.
Conclusion: E. cardamom oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity in dose-dependent manner as they inhibit the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2. al-Zuhair H, el-Sayeh B, Ameen HA, al-Shoora H. Pharmacological studies of cardamom oil in animals. Pharmacol Res 1996;34:79-82.
3. Zolot J. Long-term NSAIDs and acetaminophen linked to hearing loss in women. Am J Nurs 2017;117:16.
4. Takahashi N, Omata JI, Iwabuchi M, Fukuda H, Shirado O. Therapeutic efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy versus exercise therapy in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: A prospective study. Fukushima J Med Sci 2017;63:8-15.
5. Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum) | Plant Profiler. Sigma-Aldrich. Available from: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/elettaria-cardamomum.html. [Last cited on 2017 Apr 25].
6. Cardamom-PHAR6157. Available from: https://www.sites.google.com/a/umn.edu/phar6157s13/home/cardamom. [Last cited on 2017 Apr 25].
7. Zhang L, Hu JJ, Lin JW, Fang WS, Du GH. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts of pterocephalus hookeri (C.B. Clarke) hÃ¶eck. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123:510-4.
8. Cardamom-Uses & Benefits of Cardamom, Elettaria Cardamomum. Available from: http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/cardamom.html. [Last cited on 2017 Apr 24].
9. Black Cardamom: Uses, Dose, Side Effects, Research, Remedies-Easy Ayurveda: Health-Lifestyle. Available from: http://www.easyayurveda.com/2016/09/18/black-cardamom-uses-dose-side-effects-research-remedies. [Last cited on 2017 Apr 25].
10. Gulecha V, Sivakumar T, Upaganlawar A, Khandare R, Upasani C. Tephrosia purpurea Linn leaves attenuate pain and inflammation in experimental animals. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:146.
11. Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R. Biphasic development of carrageenin edema in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1969;166:96-103.
12. Manjamalai A, Jiflin GJ, Grace VM. Study on the effect of essential oil of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) against microbes and inflammation. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:155-63.
13. Prakash PR, Rao NR, Chowdary S. Formulation, evaluation and anti-inflammatory activity of topical etoricoxib gel. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:126.
14. Singh M, Kumar V, Singh I, Gauttam V, Kalia AN. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa linn. Leaves. Pharmacognosy Res 2010;2:364-7.
15. Bolam JP, Elliott PN, Ford-Hutchinson AW, Smith MJ. Histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, kinins and the anti-inflammatory activity of human plasma fraction in carrageenan-induced paw oedema in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol 1974;26:434-40.
16. Taranalli AD, Thimmaiah NV, Srinivas S, Saravanan E. Research article anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti ulcer activity of certain thiazolidinones. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2009;2:17. Gaur K, Rana AC, Nema RK, Kori ML, Sharma CS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of hydro-alcoholic leaves extract of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2009;2:26-9.
18. Babu AS, Karki SS. Anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of roots of Calotropis procera against different inflammation models. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:191-4.
19. Bihani G, Rojatkar SR, Bodhankar SL. Investigation of in-vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in rodents and in-vitro antioxidant activity of extracts of whole plant of Cyathocline purpurea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:492-8.
20. FÃ©lix-Silva JU, Gomes JA, Barbosa LM, Pinheiro IT, Soares LA, Silva-JÃºnior AA, et al. Systemic and local anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract from Jatropha gossypiifolia L.(Euphorbiaceae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:58-66.
21. Chaturvedi S, Drabu S, Sharma M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Tamarix gallica. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:653-8.