Sreeremya S, Rajiv P


Objectives: The main objective of the research is to pretreat the Category III biomedical waste using Bacillus flexus and to assess the physiochemical properties of pretreated biomedical waste.

Methods: Major pretreatment methods such as physical (P), chemical (C), biological (using B. flexus) (B), physical and chemical, and physical, chemical, and biological method (PCB) were adopted for this investigation. The nutritional status was analyzed before and after the pretreatment. The physiochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, cellulose content, and carbohydrate content were assessed.

Results: There was a significant difference between before and after the pretreatments of physiochemical properties. By treating, the biomedical waste with B. flexus has produced a drastic change in the cellulose level. By the assessment of each parameter before and after the pretreatment, the percentage of cellulose levels was found to be 35-40 in PCB method.

Conclusions: Hence, the study concludes that the pretreated biomedical waste contains suitable physiochemical properties, which may be used as a substrate for the production of vermicompost.


Pretreatment, Biomedical waste, Biological treatment, Physiochemical.

| PDF |


Benedict RG, Carlson D. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. Water Res 1971;5:1023-30.

Li S, Xu S, Liu C. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in free-fall reactor for hydrogen-rich gas. Fuel Process Technol 2004;85(8-10):1201-11.

Harhay MO, Halpern SD, Harhey JS, Olliaro PL. Health care waste management a neglected and growing public problem worldwide. Trop Med Int Health 2009;58:17-23.

Bitton G. Wastewater Microbiology. 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: A John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2005. p. 345-69.

Anitha J, Indira AJ. Isolation and identification of bacteria from biomedical waste (BMW). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(5):286-388.

Hoffman RM, Wood TM. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant of Penicillium funiculosum for the saccharification of straw. Biotechnol Bioeng 1985;27(1):81-5.

Almuneef M, Memish ZA. Effective medical waste management: It can be done. Am J Infect Control 2003;31(3):188-92.

Ball AS, Betts WB, McCarthy AJ. Degradation of lignin-related compounds by actinomycetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 1989;55(6):1642-4.

Lee SM, Koo YM. Pilot-scale production of cellulose using Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 in fed-batch mode. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2001;11(2):229-33.

Lynd LR, Wyman CE, Gerngross TU. Biocommodity engineering. Biotechnol Prog 1999;115(3):223-32.

Ohkuma M. Symbioses of flagellates and prokaryotes in the gut of lower termites. Trends Microbiol 2008;16:345-52.

Tahoun MK, Ibrahim AA. Conversion of natural cellulosic substrates into fermentable sugar by recombinant Fungi strain. J Environ Sci 1999;208:65-8.

Singh J, Batra N, Sobt RC. A highly thermostable alkaline CMCase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus sp.VG1. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 1998;17(8):761-5.

Mandels M, Anderotti R, Rochec C. Measurement of saccharifying cellulase. Biotechnol Bioeng 1976;95:391-414.

Jackson ML. Soil Chemical Analysis. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.; 1973. p. 10-50.

Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Fowler P, Baird MS. Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw. Carbohydr Res 2005;340:97-106.

Balat M, Balat H, Oz C. Progress in bioethanol processing. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2008;34(5):551-73.

Updegraff DM. Semimicro determination of cellulose in biological materials. Anal Biochem 1969;32(3):420-4.

Blasi CD, Signorelli G, Di Russo, Rea G. Product distribution from pyrolysis of wood and agricultural residues. Ind Eng Chem Res 1990;38(6):2216-24.

Miller GL. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 1959;31(3):426-8.

Hansen J, Moller IB. Percolation of starch and soluble carbohydrates from plant tissues for quantiative determination with anthrone. Anal Biochem 1975;68(1):87-94.

Duff S, Murray JB. Bioconversion of forest products industry waste cellulosics to fuel ethanol: A review. Bioresour Technol 1996;55:1-33.

Kushwaha JP, Srivastava VC, Mall ID. An overview of various technologies for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51:442-52.

Yin L, Lin H, Xiao Z. Purification and characterization of cellulose from Bacillus sustilis YJI. J Marine Sci Technol 2010;18:466-71.

About this article




Pretreatment, Biomedical waste, Biological treatment, Physiochemical.





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 12 December 2017 Page: 137-140

Print ISSN


Online ISSN


Authors & Affiliations

Sreeremya S
Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Rajiv P
Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Article Tools

Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)


  • There are currently no refbacks.