ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA FLOWERS FROM BIHAR, INDIA.
Keywords:Leucas aspera flower, Antibacterial activity, Antifungal activity, Antioxidant activity
Â Objective: The aim of this study was to explicate antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of Leucas aspera flowers.
Methods: Antibacterial activity was done by agar diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extract of L. aspera flower was evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity was also done by agar diffusion method. The agar used for antifungal activity was Czapek Dox Agar. Nitric oxide scavenging assay and free radical scavenging assay were used for the antioxidant activity. Griess reagent was used in nitric oxide scavenging assay. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl was used in free radical scavenging assay.
Results: L. aspera flower extract showed good antibacterial activity with the highest zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera with 23 mm followed by Bacillus polymyxa showing 20 mm zone of inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of L. aspera flower showed quite a good results with the highest inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger with 13 mm zone of inhibition and lowest for Trichoderma viridae with 5 mm zone of inhibition. Antioxidant activity of L. aspera flower extract was done by free radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Nitric oxide scavenging assay showed prominent results almost performed equal to standard compound Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) The values for 10 Î¼l of L. aspera extract was 50.27, for the standard (BHA) showed 50.81. L. aspera extract values for 50 Î¼l was 69.73 and for BHA, the values was 77.30. For 100 Î¼l, the extract gave 82.70, and for standard BHA, the reading was 89.73.
Conclusion: The results showed that L. aspera flower has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity ranging from 23 to 13 mm zone of inhibition. L. aspera flower has strong antioxidative power on nitric oxide radicals. The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution to the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies.
Srivastava J, Lambert J, Vietmeyer N. Antimicrobial Activity of Anogeissus latifolia. Medicinal plants: An Expanding Role in Development. World Bank Technical Paper. No.320. 106. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 1996. p. 57-61.
Parekh J, Chanda S. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian medicinal plants against pathogenic yeast and moulds. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:4349-53.
Balandrin MF, Klocke JA, Wurtele ES, Bollinger WH. Natural plant chemicals: Sources of industrial and medicinal materials. Science 1985;228:1154-60.
van der Watt E, Pretorius JC. Purification and identification of active antibacterial components in Carpobrotus edulis L. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:87-91.
World Health Organization. Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 2005;78:431-41.
Rapp RP. Changing strategies for the management of invasive fungal infections. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24:4S-28S.
Mukherjee AK, Basu S, Sarkar N, Ghosh AC. Advances in cancer therapy with plant based natural products. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:1467- 86.
Quiroga EN, Sampietro AR, Vattuone MA. Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;74:89-96.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1022-37.
Hedge IC. Labiatae. In: Ali SI, Nasir YJ, editors. Flora of Pakistan. Karachi: University of Karachi Department of Botany; 1990. p. 192.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Periodical Experts; 1975. p. 2019-20.
Hooker JD. The Flora of British India. London: The Muston Company; 1984. p. 690.
Rios JL, Recio MC, Villar A. Screening methods for natural products with antimicrobial activity: A review of the literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1988;23:127-49.
Braca A, De Tommasi N, Di Bari L, Pizza C, Politi M, Morelli I, et al. Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia tarapotensis. J Nat Prod 2001;64:892-5.
Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;201:748-55.
Rauha JP, Remes S, Heinonen M, Hopia A, KÃ¤hkÃ¶nen M, Kujala T, et al. Antimicrobial effects of finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;56:3-12.
Zaika LL. Spices and herbs: Their antimicrobial activity and its determination. J Food Saf 1988;9:97-118.
Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids and isoflavones: Absorption, metabolism, and bioactivity. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;36:827-8.
Prior RL, Cao G. Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: Diet and health implications. Hort Science 2000;35:588-92.
Vijayan A, Liju VB, John JV, Reena B, Parthipan RC. Traditional remedies of Kani tribes of Kottoor reserve forest, Agasthyavanam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala Indian J Tradit Knowledge 2007;6:589-94.
Chew AL, Jessica JJ, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:176-80.
Tahareen S, Shwetha R, Myrene RD. Potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial evaluation of extracts of Leucas aspera using in vitro models. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:292-7.
Gowrish A, Vagdevi HM, Rajashekar H. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Leucas marrubioides desf. Root extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:209-12.
Rahman MS, Sadhu SK, Hasan CM. Preliminary antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Leucas aspera root. Fitoterapia 2007;78:552-5.
Salman MT, Khan RA, Shukla I. Antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa Linn. Seed oil against multi-drug resistant bacteria from clinical isolates. Nat Prod Radiance 2008;7:10-1.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.