EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAVES (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) AND CAROM SEEDS (TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI) EXTRACTS ON MALE MICE EXPOSED TO DIAZINON.


Manju Ohri Pai, Venkatesh S Pai, Anil K Gupta

Abstract


 Objective: The present communication is based on herb, namely, Trachyspermum ammi L. belonging to family Apiaceae, commonly known as “Ajowan” or carom seeds, and green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) for the prevention of intoxication induced with a sublethal dose of diazinon.

Methods: Male mice weighing around 6.5 mg/kg body weight were exposed to diazinon, a common pesticide used in plant cultivation. Carom seed and green tea leave extracts were given thereafter to the male mice to check their effect on the toxicity of diazinon.

Results: After several weeks of exposure to these herbal extracts, there was a significant change observed in the hematobiochemical parameters with a significant increase in values of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, and cholesterol. In contrast, no significant statistical difference was perceived in the values of all hematobiochemical parameters in mice treated with tea leaves extract, carom seed extract, and tea leave and carom seed extracts except the value of serum cholesterol in mice treated with carum seed extract which decreased as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: These findings suggest the importance of the carom seeds and green tea and their combinatorial usage against diazinon toxicity, thus promising these plant products to be promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders due to diazinon toxicity. This also makes the safety of herbal products an important public health issue.


Keywords


Carom seeds, Trachyspermum ammi L., Camellia sinensis, Green tea leaves, Pesticide, Diazinon.

| PDF |

References


Shah MD, Iqbal M. Diazinon-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:3345-53.

Colović M, Krstić D, Petrović S, Leskovac A, Joksić G, Savić J, et al. Toxic effects of diazinon and its photo degradation products. Toxicol Lett 2010;193:9-18.

Morgan MK, Sheldon LS, Jones PA, Croghan CW, Chuang JC, Wilson NK, et al. The reliability of using urinary biomarkers to estimate children’s exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2011;21:280-90.

Baireddy P, Liu J, Hinsdale M, Pope C. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid cb1 receptor knockout mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011;256:324-9.

Balali-Mood M, Shirazi FH. Recent advances in treatment of acute organophosphorous nerve agents poisoning. Iran J Pharm Res 2006;5:79-87.

Fazekas B, Ivanics E, Hajtos I, Glavits R. Diazinon toxicosis in geese. Open Toxicol 2008;1:5-8.

Flaskos J, Nikolaidis E, Harris W, Sachana M, Hargreaves AJ. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetyl cholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011;256:330-6.

Yen J, Donerly S, Levin ED, Linney EA. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition of chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion in larval zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2011;33:735-41.

Karakoca K, Ozusaglam MA, Cakmak YS, Erkul SK. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of Isatis floribunda Boiss. Ex Bornm. extracts. EXCLI J 2013;12:150-67.

Watanabe CM, Wolffram S, Ader P, Rimbach G, Packer L, Maguire JJ, et al. The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine Ginkgo biloba. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98:6577-80.

Sharangi AB. Medicinal and therapeutic potentialities of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)-a review. Food Res Int 2009;42:529-35.

Kumar A, Pai MO, Rai N. In-vitro hepatoprotective activity of Albizia lebbeck, Cassia occidentalis and Swertia chirata on HEPG2 cells. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:276-80.

Al-Attar AM, Zeid IM. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon. BioMed Res Int 2013;2013:1-6.

Kimberly AG, Lambert JD. Laboratory, epidemiological, and human intervention studies show that tea (Camellia sinensis) may be useful in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 2010;140:446-53.

Wang ZY, Cheng SJ, Zhou ZC, Athar M, Khan WA, Bickers DR, et al. Antimutagenic activity of green tea polyphenols. Mutat Res 1989;223:273-85.

Ho CT, Chen Q, Shi H, Zhang KQ, Rosen RT. Antioxidative effect of polyphenol extract prepared from various Chinese teas. Prev Med 1992;21:520-5.

Chisaka T, Matsuda H, Kubomura Y, Mochizuki M, Yamahara J, Fujimura H. The effect of crude drugs on experimental hypercholesteremia: Mode of action of epigallocatechin gallate in tea leaves. Chem Pharm Bull 1998;36:227-33.

Al-Attar AM, Zari TA. Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice. Saudi J Biol Sci 2010;17:295-301.

Bairwa R, Sodha RS, Rajawat BS. Trachyspermum ammi. Pharmacogn Rev 2012;6:56-60.

Singh I, Singh VP. Antifungal properties of aqueous and organic extracts of seed plants against Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Phytomorphology 2000;20:151-7.

Sivropoulou A, Papanikolaou E, Nilolaou C, Kokkini S, Lanaras T, Arsenakis M. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of origanum essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 1999;44:1202-5.

Anonymous. British Pharmacopoeia. London: HMS; 1988. p. 137-8.

Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Carol Stream, IL: Allured Publishing Co.; 1995.

Zarshenas MH, Samani SM, Petramfar P, Moein M. Analysis of the essential oil components from different Carum copticum L. samples from Iran. Pharmacognosy Res 2014;6:62-6.

Ibrahim NA, El-Gamal BA. Effect of diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, on plasma lipid constituents in experimental animals. J Biochem Mol Biol 2003;36:499-504.

Al-Attar AM. The ameliorative role of β-carotene pretreatment on diazinon-induced enzymological and histopathological changes in wistar male rats. Glob J Pharm 2009;3:171-7.

Al-Attar AM, Al-Taisan WA. Preventive effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on sprague dawley rats exposed to diazinon. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2010;4:957-68.

Zari TA, Al-Attar AM. Therapeutic effects of olive leaves extract on rats treated with a sublethal concentration of carbendazim. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011;15:413-26.

Al-Attar AM. Physiological and histopathological investigations on the effects of alpha-lipoic acid in rats exposed to Malathion. J Biomed Biotechnol 2010;2010:203503.

Mossa AT, Refaie AA, Ramadan A. Effect of exposure to mixture of four organophosphate insecticides at no observe adverse effect level dose on rat liver: The protective role of vitamin C. Res J Environ Toxicol 2011;5:323-35.

Chatterjea MN, Shinde R. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry. 6th ed. New-Delhi, India: Jaypee Broth; 2005.

Jalili S, Farshid AA, Heydari R, Ilkhanipour M, Salehi S. Histopathological observations on protective effects of vitamin E on endosulfan induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2007;10:1922-5.

Hayes AW. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York, NY, USA: Raven Press; 1994.

Agbor GA, Oben JE, Nkegoum B, Takla JP, Ngogang JY. Hepatoprotective activity of Hibiscus cannabinus (Linn.) against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2005;8:1397-401.

Shivanandappa T, Krishnakumari MK. Histochemical and biochemical changes in rats fed dietary benzene hexachloride. Indian J Exp Biol 1981;19:1163-8.

Zarn JA, Br¨uschweiler BJ, Schlatter JR. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by in hibitingsterol 14a-demethylase and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:255-61.

Pfeifer KF, Weber LJ. The effect of carbon tetrachloride on the total plasma protein concentration of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Comp Biochem Physiol 1979;64:37-42.

Muthuviveganandavel V, Muthuraman P, Muthu S, Srikumar K. Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats. Int J Drug Deliv 2010;2:352-6.

Debnath D, Mandal TK. Study of quinalphos (an environmental oestrogenic insecticide) formulation (Ekalux 25 E.C.)-induced damage of the testicular tissues and antioxidant defence systems in sprague-dawley albino rats. J Appl Toxicol 2000;20:197-204.

Banerjee BD, Seth V, Bhattacharya A, Pasha ST, Chakraborty AK. Biochemical effects of some pesticides on lipid peroxidation and free-radical scavengers. Toxicol Lett 1999;107:33-47.

Rietveld A, Wiseman S. Antioxidant effects of tea: Evidence from human clinical trials. J Nutr 2003;133:3285S-92S.

El-Kott AF, Bin-Meferij MM. Influence of green tea on haematological and lung histological disorders induced by malathion in rats. Res J Environ Toxicol 2008;2:85-91.

Korany NS, Ezzat BA. Prophylactic effect of green tea and Nigella sativa extracts against fenitrothion-induced toxicity in rat parotid gland. Arch Oral Biol 2011;56:1339-46.

Srivastava KC. Extract of a spice – omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1988;33:1-6.

Heikal TM, Mossa AT, Rasoul MA, Marie GIK. The ameliorating effect of green tea extract against cyromazine and chlorphylifos induced liver toxicity in male rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:48-55.

Rathod S, Manita W. Antibacterial activity of green tea extract in combination with cefotaxime on diarrhea causing ESBL producing E.coli. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:258-62.

Hegazy R, Moustafa R, El-Melingy R. The therapeutic and neuroprotective effects of green tea in a rat model of terlipressin induced chronic hyponatremia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:253-9.

Lateef M, Iqbal Z, Akhtar MS, Jabbar A, Khan MN, Gilani AH, et al. Preliminary screening of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) seed for anthelmintic activity in sheep. Trop Anim Health Prod 2006;38:491-6.

Javed I, Iqbal Z, Rahman Z, Khan FH, Muhammad F, Aslam B, et al. Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi extracts in albino rabbits. Pak Vet J 2006;26:23-9.

Mathew N, Bhattacharya SM, Perumal V, Muthuswamy K. Antifilarial lead molecules isolated from Trachyspermum ammi. Molecules 2008;13:2156-68.

Park IK, Kim J, Lee SG, Shin SC. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). J Nematol 2007;39:275-9.

Kaur T, Bijarnia RK, Singla SK, Tandon C. In vivo efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein in urolithiatic rat model. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;126:459-62.

Singh G, Maurya S, Catalan C, De Lampasona MP. Chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative effects of ajwain essential oil and its acetone extract. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:3292-6.

Pandey SK, Upadhyay S, Tripathi AK. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) sprague seeds against anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res 2009;105:507-12.




About this article

Title

EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAVES (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) AND CAROM SEEDS (TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI) EXTRACTS ON MALE MICE EXPOSED TO DIAZINON.

Topics

Pharmacology, Toxicology

Keywords

Carom seeds, Trachyspermum ammi L., Camellia sinensis, Green tea leaves, Pesticide, Diazinon.

DOI

10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.22353

Date

01-02-2018

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 11 Issue 2 February 2018 Page: 138-142

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Statistics

44 Views | 82 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Manju Ohri Pai
Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India.
India

Venkatesh S Pai
Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India.
India

Anil K Gupta
Department of Medical Microbiology and Medical Lab Technology, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Balawala, Dehradun, India.
India


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.