MICRONUCLEI - AS A BIOMARKER OF GENOTOXICITY IN AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA
Â Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics (AMs) using micronuclei (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs) such as binucleate cell (BN), karyorrhexis (KR), and karyolysis (KL) as biomarkers of genotoxicity.
Methods: The study was conducted on 60 AMs between age group of 20â€“40 years who were working in automobile garages for more than 1 year from western Maharashtra, and 60 healthy males with same socioeconomic status were chosen as controls. AMs were divided into three groups based on their duration of exposure, i.e. 1â€“5 years, 6â€“10 years, and more than 11 years. The exfoliated buccal cells were obtained and fixed with methanol for 10 min. Then, air-dried and stained it with Giemsa stain. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired t-test for two groups and one-way ANOVA for multiple groups of exposures.
Results: The mean values of MN, BN, KR, and KL in AMs (8.20, 13.57, 16.70, and 22.10, respectively) are significantly increased as compared to controls (5.10, 8.82, 12.30, and 16.12, respectively). As the year of exposure increased, the mean values of MN and other NAs were significantly increased in AMs (p<0.05).
Conclusion: MN and other NAs reflect genetic changes and events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that AMs exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and to create better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote occupational safety.
2. Martson CP, Pareira C, Ferguson J, Fischer K, Olaf H, Dashwood W, et al. Effect of complex environmental mixture from coal tar containing PAH on tumor initiation, PAH-DNA binding and metabolic activation of carcinogenic PAH in mouse epidermis. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1077 85.
3. Simko P. Determination of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002;770:3-18.
4. Fenech M, Crott JW. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds induced in folic acid deficient human lymphocytes-evidence for breakage-fusion-bridge cycles in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 2002;504:131-6.
5. Manno M, Viau C, in collaboration with, Cocker J, Colosio C, Lowry L, et al. Biomonitoring for occupational health risk assessment (BOHRA). Toxicol Lett 2010;192:3-16.
6. Battershill JM, Burnett K, Bull S. Factors affecting the incidence of genotoxicity biomarkers in peripheral blood lymphocytes: Impact on design of biomonitoring studies. Mutagenesis 2008;23:423-37.
7. IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Occupational Exposures in Petroleum ReÂ®ning: Crude Oil and Major Petroleum Fuels. Vol. 4. Lyon, France: IARC; 1989.
8. Carere A, Antoccia A, Crebelli R, Degrassi F, Fiore M, Iavarone I, et al. Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: Cytogenetic monitoring of gasoline station attendants. Mutat Res 1995;332:17-26.
9. Tolbert PE, Shy CM, Allen JW. Micronuclei and other anomalies in buccal smears: Methods development. Mutat Res 1992;271:69 77.
10. Stich HF, Stich W, Parida BB. Elevated frequency of micronucleated cells in the buccal mucosa of individuals at high risk for risk for oral cancer: Betel quid chewers. Cancer Lett 1982;17:125-34.
11. Patil Smita V, Patil S, Kanitkar S, Gaikwad P. Effect of petroleum fumes on cardio-pulmonary efficiency in petrol pump workers of Western Maharashtra. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2017;8:408-11.
12. Patil Smita V, Patil S, Kanitkar S. Study of peak expiratory flow rate as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers of Western Maharashtra. J Krishna Inst Med Sci Univ 2016;5:95-100.
13. Celik A, Cavas T, Ergene-Goezuekara S. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in petrol station attendants: micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells. Mutagenesis 2003;18:417-21.
14. Infante PF, Schwartz E, Cahill R. Benzene in petrol: A continuing hazard. Lancet 1990;336:814 5.
15. Ireland B, Collins JJ, Buckley CF, Riordan SG. Cancer mortality among workers with benzene exposure. Epidemiology 1997;8:18 20.
16. Jois HS, Kale AD, Kumar MK. Micronucleus as potential biomarker of oral carcinogenesis. Indian J Dent Adv 2010;2:197 20.
17. Khan MR, Sudha S. Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. Iran J Cancer Prev 2012;2:87-92.
18. Sellappa S. Oxidative damage in automobile repair garage workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Community Med Health Educ 2013;3:4.
19. Paul S, Chakrabarty A, Deb B, Roy P. Nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cbuccal epithelial cells of petrol pump attendents of southern Assam, India. J Glob Biosci 2016;5:3491-9.
20. Metgud R, Khajuria N, Patel S, Lerra S. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan. J Can Res Ther 2015;11:868-73.
21. Khan MR, Sudha S. Elevated frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in buccal epithelial cells of spray painters in South India Int J Pharm Life Sci (IJPLS) 2013;4:2680-4.
22. Vainio HM, Sorsa H. Occupational cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health 1980;6:921 1035.
23. Verma Y, Rana SV. Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaner. Ind Health 2001;39:330 3.
24. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Human. Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1989;46:1 458.
25. Bloching M, Hofmann A, LautenschlÃ¤ger C, Berghaus A, Grummt T. Exfoliative cytology of normal buccal mucosa to predict the relative risk of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract using the MN-assay. Oral Oncol 2000;36:550-5.
26. Singaravelu SR, Sellappa S. Assessment of genotoxicity in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundary workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:339 42.
27. Ambasta SK, Kumari S, Sinha UK. Anticlastogenicity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extract against arsenic genotoxicity in Mus musculus bone marrow erythrocytes using micronucleus assay. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:260-4.
28. Thiyam R, Narasu ML. Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of zerumbone on colon adenocarcinoma colo205 cells and human lymphocytes. Int J Pharm Pharmsci 2017;9:92-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.