• Sri Ningsih 1Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Laptiab Laboratory, 610-611 Building, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
  • Fahri Fahrudin Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, National Islamic University, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia.


 Objective: Hyperuricemia (high uric acid levels) prevalence increased year by year. This study was aimed to elaborate the in vitro xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and in vivo lowering hyperuricemic effect of Uncaria gambir (Hunter) Roxb) (gambir), Caesalpinia sappan L. (secang) and the combined extract of secang and gambir (formulae extract [FE]).

Methods: Gambir and secang extracts were prepared by maceration with ethanol and FE was the proportioned combination of these two extracts. XO inhibitory activity was determined by measuring the formation of uric acid in the xanthine/XO system in vitro using allopurinol as a positive control at 100 ug/mL. Antioxidant activity was by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical reducing methods. The in vivo experiments were conducted in the oxonate-induced hyperuricemia rat model, in which FE was gavaged p.o. at the arrange dose of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg bw for 2 weeks. Polyphenol content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent spectrophotometrically.

Results: The XO inhibitory activity of FE was 80% of allopurinol, while secang and gambir were 98% and 50%, respectively. The strength was appropriate to the total polyphenol content, in which it decreased in the order of secang (99%) > FE (86%) > gambir (46%). Furthermore, FE at all tested doses was able to decrease uric acid levels. FE also demonstrated antioxidant activity with a value of 74% relative to Vitamin C at 4 ug/mL.

Conclusion: These studies could be concluded that FE exhibited the ability to decrease uric acid level so that it was potential to be developed further as a uric acid-lowering agent.

Keywords: Gambir (Uncaria gambir (Hunter) Roxb), Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.), Hyperuricemia, Xanthine oxidase, Blood lowering uric acid, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, Polyphenol.

Author Biography

Sri Ningsih, 1Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Laptiab Laboratory, 610-611 Building, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology


1. Ling X, Bochu W. A review of phytotherapy of gout: Perspective of new pharmacological treatments. Pharmazie 2014;69:243-56.
2. Spanou C, Veskoukis AS, Kerasioti T, Kontou M, Angelis A, Aligiannis N, et al. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. PLoS One 2012;7:e32214.
3. Ningsih S, Fachrudin F, Rismana E, Purwaningsih EH, Sumaryono S, Jusman SW. Evaluation of antilipid peroxidation activity of gambir extract on liver homogenat in vitro. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:982-9.
4. Rismana E, Ningsih S, Fachrudin F. In vitro study of xanthine oxidase inhibitory of gambir (Uncaria gambir) hunter roxb extracts. Pharmacogn J 2017;9:862-5.
5. Nguyen MT, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Tran QL, Kadota S. Neosappanone A, a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory dimeric methanodibenzoxocinone with a new carbon skeleton from Caesalpinia sappan. Tetrahedron Lett 2004;45:8519-22.
6. Dew TP, Day AJ, Morgan MR. Xanthine oxidase activity in vitro: Effects of food extracts and components. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:651015.
7. Pour BM, Jothy SL, Latha LY, Chen Y, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:960-5.
8. Waterhouse A. Folin-Ciocalteau Micro Method for Total Phenol in Wine. Waterhouse Lab., University of California. Accessed from: http://www.waterhouse.ucdavis.edu/faqs/davis-info. [Last accessed on 2013 Oct 17].
9. Haidari F, Rashidi MR, Keshavarz SA, Mahboob SA, Eshraghian MR, Shahi MM, et al. Effects of onion on serum uric acid levels and hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11:1779-84.
10. Boussoualim N, Baghiani A, Krache I, Trabsa H, Kenouf S, Arrar L. Inhibitory effects of Anchusa azurea extracts on xanthine oxidase activity and its hypouricemic effects on mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:195-9.
11. Widyarini KD, Sukandar EY, Fidrianny I. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of Anredera cordifolia (ten) steenis, Sonchus arvensis l, and its combination. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:86-90.
12. Zhou X, Seto SW, Chang D, Kiat H, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K, et al. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: A Comprehensive review of methodology and current research. Front Pharmacol 2016;7:201.
13. Yi W, Wetzstein HY. Anti-tumorigenic activity of five culinary and medicinal herbs grown under greenhouse conditions and their combination effects. J Sci Food Agric 2011;91:1849-54.
14. Zanin JLB, Carvalho BA, Martineli PS, Santos MH, Lago JH, Sartorelli P, et al. The genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpiniaceae): Phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics: Review. Molecules 2012;17:7887 902.
15. Hunyadi A, Martins A, Danko B, Chuang D, Trouillas P, Chang FR, et al. Discovery of the first non-planar flavonoid that can strongly inhibit xanthine oxidase: Protoapigenone 10-O-propargyl ether. Tetrahedron Lett 2013;54:6529-32.
16. Cos P, Ying L, Calomme M, Hu JP, Cimanga K, Poel BV, et al. Structure-activity relationship and classification of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and superoxide scavengers. J Nat Prod 1998;61:71-6.
17. Wong YP, Ching R, Chuah SP, Koh RY, Ling AP. Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Swietenia macrophylla and Punica granatum. International Conference on Biological, Environment and Food Engineering (BEFE-2014), Bali (Indonesia). 2014. p. 4-5.
18. Lin CM, Chen CS, Chen CT, Lin JK, Liang YC. Molecular modeling of flavonoids that inhibits xanthine oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2002;294:167-72.
19. Owen PL, John T. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of northeastern North American plant remedies used for gout. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64:149-60.
20. Sahgal G, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Mordi MN, Ismail S, Mansor SM. In vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Methanolic Swietenia mahagoni seed extracts. Molecules 2009;14:4476-85.
21. Bandara CJ, Karunaratne DN, Wickramasinghe A, Wijesundara DS, Bandara BM, Karunaratne V. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the Sri Lankan endemic plant genus Schumacheria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:465-7.
22. Kadchumsang S, Sirisa-Ard P, Sookkhee S, Chansakaow S. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of lanna medicinal plants used in Mahoog formula. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:366-70.
254 Views | 340 Downloads
How to Cite
Ningsih, S., and F. Fahrudin. “LOWERING URIC ACID EFFICACY TEST OF THE COMBINED EXTRACT OF UNCARIA GAMBIR (HUNTER) ROXB. AND CAESALPINIA SAPPAN L. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 11, no. 8, Aug. 2018, pp. 166-70, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i8.26020.
Original Article(s)