A REVIEW ON BIOGENIC PROPERTIES OF STEM BARK OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA: AN UPDATE
Keywords:Antioxidant, Cardioprotective, Flavonoids, Terminalia arjuna bark
The traditional and alternative systems of medicine have been resulting more than 85% of the drugs from a plant source. Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) stem bark contain glycosides, ample quantities of flavonoids, tannins, and minerals. Flavonoids have been identified to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making T. arjuna bark inimitable. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss various aspects of its ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical relevance to various ailments condition. Available data from PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were reviewed. Review articles, case reports, and clinical studies were included. Ultimately, after the elimination of repetitive information, 60 articles were identified. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that T. arjuna bark possesses antiâ€‘ischemic, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic activity. Its useful phytoconstituents are triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, phenolics, and arjunolic acid. Experimental studies have revealed that T. arjuna bark exerting significant cardioprotective and as potent antioxidant activity. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with T. arjuna bark therapy. However, its longâ€‘term safety still remains to be elucidated. T. arjuna bark has been found quite useful as cardioprotective agent. The present comprehensive update review is, therefore, an effort to give detailed information on T. arjuna stem bark for overall management of several ailments.
Heinrich M. Ethnobotany and its role in drug development. Phytother Res 2000;14:479-88.
Tabuti JR, Lye KA, Dhillion SS. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: Plants, use and administration. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:19-44.
Ayyanar M, Sankarasivaraman K, Ignacimuthu S. Traditional herbal medicines used for the treatment of diabetes among two major tribal groups in south Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnobot Leaf 2008;12:276-80.
Pashazanousi MB, Raeesi M, Shirali S. Chemical composition of the essential oil, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid evaluation of various extracts from leaves and fruit peels of Citrus limon. Asian J Chem 2012;24:4331-4.
Hafiz FB, Towfique NM, Sen MK, Sima SN, Azhar BS, Rahman MM. A comprehensive ethno-pharmacological and phytochemical update review on medicinal plant of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. of bangladesh. Sch Acad J Pharm 2014;3:19-25.
Ram A, Lauria P, Gupta R, Kumar P, Sharma VN. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia arjuna tree bark. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;55:165-69.
Bachaya HA, Iqbal Z, Khan MN, Jabbar A, Gilani AH, Din IU. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna bark. Int J Agric Biol 2009;11:273-8.
Phanikumar G, Navya K, Ramya EM, Venkataramana M, Anand T, Anilakumar KR. DNA damage protecting and free radical scavenging properties of Terminalia arjuna bark in PC-12 cells and plasmid DNA. Free Radic Antioxid 2013;3:35-9.
Dwivedi S. Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn.- a useful drug for cardiovascular disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;114:114-29.
Dwivedi S, Udupa N. Terminaliaarjuna: Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical use a review. Fitoterapia 1989;60:413-20.
Kapoor D, Vijayvergiya R, Dhawan V. Terminalia arjuna in coronary artery disease: Ethnopharmacology, pre-clinical, clinical and safety evaluation. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;155:1029-45.
Acharya JT. The Charak Samhita. 3rd ed. Bombay: The Nirnaya Sagar Press; 1941.
Nadkarni AK, Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. 1st ed. Bombay: Popular Book Depot; 1954.
Warrier PK, Nambiar VP, Ramankutty C. Indian Medicinal Plants- A Compendium of 500 Species. 1st ed. Madras: Orient Longman Limited; 1996.
Row LR, Murty DS, Subbarao GS, Sastry CS, Rao KV. Chemical examination of Terminalia arjuna: Part-III- Isolation and structure determination of arjunetin from Terminalia arjuna, species. Indian J Chem 1970;8:772-5.
Honda T, Murae T, Tsuyuki T, Takahashi T, Sawai M. Arjungenin, arjunglucoside I and arjunglucoside II, a new triterpene and new triterpene-glucosides from Terminalia arjuna. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 1976;49:3213-8.
Anjaneyulu AS, Prasad AV. Structure of terminic acid, a dihydroxy-triterpene carboxylic acid from Terminalia arjuna. Phytochemistry 1983;22:993-8.
Singh B, Singh VP, Pandey VB, Rucker G. A new triterpeneglycoside from Terminalia arjuna. Planta Med 1995;61:576-7.
Singh DV, Verma RK, Singh SC, Gupta MM. RP-LC determinationof oleane derivatives in Terminalia arjuna. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002;28:447-52.
Wang W, Ali Z, Shen Y, Li X, Khan IA. Ursane triterpenoids from the bark of Terminalia arjuna. Fitoterapia 2010;81:480-4.
Sharma PN, Shoeb A, Kapil RS, Popli SP. Arjunolone: A new flavones from stem bark of Terminalia arjuna. Indian J Chem 1982;21B:263-4.
Tripathi VK, Pandey VB, Udupa KN, Rucker G. Arjunolitin, a triterpene glycoside from Terminalia arjuna. Phytochemistry 1992;31:349-51.
Ali A, Kaur G, Hayat K, Ali M, Ather M. A novel naphthanolglycoside from Terminalia arjuna with antioxidant and nitricoxide inhibitory activities. Pharmazie 2003;58:932-4.
Wang W, Ali Z, Li XC, Shen Y, Khan IA. Triterpenoids from two Terminalia species. Planta Med 2010;76:1751-4.
Patnaik T, Dey RK, Gouda P. Isolation of triterpenoidglycoside from bark of Terminalia arjuna using chromatographic technique and investigation of pharmacological behavior upon muscle tissues. E J Chem 2007;4:474-9.
Alam MS, Kaur G, Ali A, Hamid H, Ali M, Athar M. Two new bioactive oleanane triterpene glycoside from Terminalia arjuna. Nat Prod Res 2008;22:1279-88.
Ahmad MU, Mullah KB, Norin T, Ulla JK. Terminoic acid, a new trihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acid from bark of Terminalia arjuna. Indian J Chem 1983;22:738-40.
Pettit GR, Hoard MS, Doubek DL, Schmidt JM, Pettit RK, Tackett LP, et al. Antineoplastic agents 338. The cancer cell growth inhibitory. Constituents of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 1996;53:57-63.
Anonymous. Terminalia arjuna. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:436-7.
Saha A, Pawar VM, Jayaraman S. Characterization of polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna bark extract. Indian J Pharm Sci 2012;74:339-47.
Takahashi SH, Tanaka H, Hano Y, Ito KT, Nomura T, Shigenobu K. Hypotensive effects in rats of hydrophilic extract from Terminalia arjuna containing tannin related compounds. Phytother Res 1997;11:424-7.
Lin TC, Chien SC, Chen HF, Hsu FL. Tannins and related compounds from Combretaceae plants. Chin Pharm J 2000;52:1-26.
Kuo PL, Hsu YL, Lin TC, Lin LT, Chang JK, Lin CC. Casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7cells. Planta Med 2005;71:237-43.
Ghosh S. Annual report of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine. Calcutta: Institute of Hygiene and the Carmichel Hospital for Tropical Diseases; 1926.
Chopra RN, Ghosh S. Terminalia arjuna: Its chemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic action. Indian Med Gaz 1929;64:70-3.
Honda T, Murae T, Tsuyuki T, Takahashi T. The structure of arjungen: A new sapogenin from Terminalia arjuna. Chem Pharm Bull 1976;24:178-80.
Anjaneyulu AS, Prasad AV. Chemical examination of roots of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arnot. Part I. Characterisation of two new triterpenoid glycosides. Indian J Chem 1982;21:530-3.
Anjaneyulu AS, Prasad AV. Chemical examination of roots of Terminalia arjuna-the structure of arjunoside III and arjunoside IV, two new triterpenoid glycosides. Phytochemistry 1982;21:2057-60.
Choubey BK, Srivastava SK. Antifungal agents from Terminalia arjuna. Indian J Chem2001;40B:354-6.
Srivastava RD, Dwivedi S, Sreenivasan KK, Chandrashekha CN. Cardiovascular effects of Terminalia species of plants. Indian Drugs 1992;29:144-9.
Bhatia J, Bhattacharya SK, Mahajan P, Dwivedi S. Effect of Terminalia arjuna on coronary flow-an experimental study (Abstract). Indian J Pharmacol 1998;30:118.
Singh N, Kapur KK, Singh SP, Shankar K, Sinha JN, Kohli RP. Mechanism of cardiovascular action of Terminalia arjuna. Planta Med 1982;45:102-4.
Dwivedi S, Chansouria JP, Somani PN, Udupa KN. Influence of certain indigenous drugs on the PGE like activity in the ischaemic rabbit aorta. Indian Drugs 1987;24:378-82.
Tandon S, Rastogi R, Kapoor NK. Protection by abana, a herbomineral preparation, against myocardial necrosis in rats induced by isoproterenol. Phytotherapy Res 1996;10:263-5.
Gupta LP, Sen SP, Udupa KN. Pharmacological studies on Terminalia arjuna. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 1976;11:16-24.
Saxena M, Faridi U, Mishra R, Gupta MM, Darokar MP. Cytotoxic agents from Terminalia arjuna. Planta Med 2007;73:1486-90.
Halder S, Bharal N, Mediratta PK, Kaur I, Sharma KK. Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antinociceptive activity of Terminalia arjuna Roxb bark powder in mice and rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47:577-83.
Kaur SJ, Grover IS, Kumar S. Modulatory effects of a tannin fraction isolated from Terminalia arjuna on the genotoxicity of mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38:1113-9.
Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. Protection of arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress by arjunolic acid. Redox Rep 2008;13:67-77.
Chaudhari M, Mengi S. Evaluation of phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna for wound healing activity in rats. Phytother Res 2006;20:799-05.
Kokkiripati PK, Kamsala RV, Bashyam L, Manthapuram N, Bitla P, Peddada V, et al. Stem-bark of Terminalia arjuna attenuates human monocytic (THP-1) and aortic endothelial cell activation. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;146:456-64.
Varghese A, Savai J, Pandita N, Gaud R. In vitro modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:806-16.
Gauthaman K, Maulik M, Kumari R, Manchanda SC, Dinda AK, Maulik SK. Effect of chronic treatment with bark of Terminalia arjuna: a study on the isolated ischemic-reperfused rat heart. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75:197-01.
Mandal S, Patra A, Samanta A, Roy S, Mandal A, Mahapatra TD, et al. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:960-6.
Bharani A, Ahirwal K, Jain N. Terminalia arjuna reverses impaired endothelial function in chronic smokers. Indian Heart J 2004;56:123-8.
Paul S, Ghosh D, Ghosh AK, Bhowmick D, Bandyopadhyay D, Chattopadhyay A. Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against phenylhydrazine induced oxidative damage in goat red blood cell membrane bound and metabolic enzymes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:62-70.
Khalil S. Effect of Statin Versus Terminalia arjuna on Acute Myocardial Infarction (DNB thesis). New Delhi, India: National Board of Examination; 2005.
Desai SD, Patil BS, Kanthe PS, Potekar RM. Effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna on liver functions and histopathology of liver in albino rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:302-6.
Bharani A, Ganguli A, Bhargava KD. Salutary effect of Terminalia arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure. Int J Cardiol 1995;49:191-9.
Yaidikar L, Thakur S. Arjunolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoidal saponin of Terminalia arjuna bark protects neurons from oxidative stress associated damage in focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Pharmacol Rep 2015;67:890-5.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.