IMPACT OF RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARYTESTICULAR AXIS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

  • Dheepthi Jayamurali Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600113, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Sathya Narayanan Govindarajulu Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600113, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the impact of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis in the Wistar albino rats.

Methods: Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing about 200 g were segregated into Group I–IV of control, 48 h SD, 72 h SD, and 96 h SD, respectively, in a custom-made SD tank. After SD procedure, the sexual behavior of rats was assessed, after which blood was collected from the animals for the estimation of HPT and stress hormones and then the testicles were used for histological studies.

Results: SD has increased (p<0.05) the mounting latency and intromission latency and decreased (p<0.05) the mounting frequency and intromission frequency compared with control group. A significant increase (p<0.05) in corticosterone, follicle stimulating hormone levels and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels were observed in all the SD groups when compared with control group. SD-induced testis architecture displayed sperm retention, sperm reduction, and shape alteration when compared to the control group. Furthermore, apoptotic bodies were observed in the testis of 72 h and 96 h of sleep-deprived animals.

Conclusion: Outcome of the project reveals that out of 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h of SD, 96 h of SD has a great impact on sexual behavior, HPT hormones, and testicular morphology.

Keywords: Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, Sexual behavior, Stress, Apoptosis.

References

1. Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: A systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLoS Med 2012;9:e1001356.
2. Manjula T, Shakti S, Sachin BA. Development and evaluation of sublingual tablet of Zolpidem tartrate an antipsychotic drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:179-87.
3. Malathi S, Vidyashree, Ravindran R. Role of Michelia champaca in memory enhancement and acute noise stressed male Wistar albino rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;10:129-35.
4. Skakkebaek NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Buck Louis GM, Toppari J, Andersson M, Eisenberg ML, et al. Male reproductive disorders and fertility trends: Influences of environment and genetic susceptibility. Physiol Rev 2016;96:55-97.
5. Ding D, Rogers K, Van der Ploeg H, Stamatakis E, Bauman AE. Traditional and emerging lifestyle risk behaviors and all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older adults: Evidence from a large population-based Australian Cohort. PLoS Med 2015;12:e1001917.
6. Abrams RM. MD Sleep deprivation. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 2015;42:493-506.
7. Hammoud AO, Walker JM, Gibson M, Cloward TV, Hunt SC, Kolotkin RL, et al. Sleep apnea, reproductive hormones and quality of sexual life in severely obese men. Obesity 2011;19:1118-23.
8. Tathiana A, Camila H, Mazaro CR, Tufik Monica LS. Impairment of male reproductive function after sleep deprivation. Fertil Steril 2015;103:1355-62.
9. Saleela M, Robert I, Sarah J. Hormonal regulation of male germ cell development. J Endocrinol 2010;205:117-31.
10. Dixon-Mueller R. The sexuality connection in reproductive health. Stud Fam Plann 1993;24:269-82.
11. Manuela S, Ilpo H. In: Lenzi A, Emmanuele AJ, editors. Endocrinology of the Testis and Male Reproduction. 1st ed. New York: Springer; 2017. p. 273-311.
12. James A, Miles F. Gene regulation in spermatogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol 2005;71:131-97.
13. Deborah S, Sergio T. Social stability attenuates the stress in the modified multiple platform method for paradoxical sleep deprivation in the rat. Physiol Behav 2000;68:309-16.
14. Agmo A. Male rat sexual behavior. Brain Res Prot 1997;1:203-9.
15. Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, Lehnert H, Schultes B. Sleep timing may modulate the effect of sleep loss on testosterone. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012;77:749-54.
16. Jauch-Chara K, Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Oltmanns KM, Schultes B. Pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormone concentrations before and during a hypoglycemic clamp after sleep deprivation in healthy men. PLoS One 2013;8:e54209.
17. Hull E, Juan M. Sexual behavior in male rodents. Horm Behav 2007;52:45-55.
18. Ilana S, Norman F, Sheila B, Christelle P, Daniel P, Craig H, et al. Sleep deprivation elevates plasma corticosterone levels in neonatal rats. Neurosci Lett 2001;315:29-32.
19. Dubey AK, Plant TM. A suppression of gonadotropin secretion by cortisol in castrated male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) mediated by the interruption of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. Biol Reprod 1985;33:423-31.
20. Kamel F, Kubajak CL. Modulation of gonadotropin secretion by corticosterone: Interaction with gonadal steroids and mechanism of action. Endocrinology 1987;121:561-8.
21. Briski KP, Sylvester PW. Acute inhibition of pituitary LH release in the male rat by the glucocorticoid agonist decadron phosphate. Neuroendocrinology 1991;54:313-20.
22. Shannon W, John A. Glucocorticoids, stress, and fertility. Endocrinology 2010;35:109-25.
23. Varykina G, Shauna M, Pamela L. Androgens, progestins, and glucocorticoids induce follicle stimulating hormone β-subunit gene expression at the level of the gonadotrope. Mol Endocrinol 2006;20:2062-79.
24. Bambino TH, Hsueh AJ. Direct inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids upon testicular luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 1981;108:2142-8.
25. Schultz R, Isola J, Parvinen M, Honkaniemi J, Wikström AC, Gustafsson JA, et al. Localization of the glucocorticoid receptor in testis and accessory sexual organs of male rat. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1993;95:115-20.
26. Siti S, Gurmeet K, Aishah M, Mashani M, Vasudevan M, Siti N. Histological changes in testes of rats treated with testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol. Iran J Reprod Med 2013;11:653-8.
27. Choi JH, Seung H, Hyun BJ, Sung SJ, Hong S, Young S, et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system in rats. J Korean Med Sci 2016;31:1624-30.
28. Arjadi F, Partadireja G, Setyawan M, Pangestu M. Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats. Univ Med 2015;34:87-95.
Statistics
129 Views | 254 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
Jayamurali, D., and S. N. Govindarajulu. “IMPACT OF RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARYTESTICULAR AXIS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 11, no. 8, Aug. 2018, pp. 412-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i8.26635.
Section
Original Article(s)