OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAINS OF MALE RATS INTOXICATED WITH ALUMINIUM AND NEUROMODULATING EFFECT OF CELASTRUS PANICULATUS ALCOHOLIC SEED EXTRACT.
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the alcoholic seed extract of Celastrus paniculatus (ASECP) could potentially prevent aluminium induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl3 at a dose of 4.2mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given Celastrus paniculatus seed extract in two different doses of 200mg and 400mg/kg/day orally 1hr prior to the AlCl3 administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase and increased the level of LPO and the activities of ALP, ACP, ALT and AST in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with ASECP at a dose of 200mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and also decreased the level of LPO and the activities of marker enzymes significantly, when compared with aluminium induced rats. Al treatment also revealed an increase in DNA fragmentation as evidenced by an increase in number of comets. Interestingly, ASECP pretreatment reduced the damage inflicted on DNA by aluminium. Aluminium induction also caused histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain which was reverted by pretreatment with ASECP. The present study clearly indicates the potential of seed extract of Celastrus paniculatus in counteracting the damage inflicted by Al on rat brain regions.
Bolla KI, Briefel G, Spector D, Schwartz BS, Wieler L, Herron J, Gimenez L, Arch. Neurol. 49 (1992) 1021â€“1026.
Yokel RA, Neurotoxicology (2000) 21:813â€“828.
Griswold WR, Reznik V, Mendoza SA, Trauner D, Alfrey AC, Pediatrics 71 (1983) 56â€“58.
Altmann P, Dhanesha U, Hamon C, Cunningham J, Blair J, Marsh F, Lancet ii (1989) 7â€“12.
Yasui M, Yase Y, Ota K, Mukoyama M, Adachi K, Neurotoxicology 12 (1991) 277â€“283.
Greger JL, Sutherland JE (1997) Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 34:439â€“474.
Exley C (1999) J. Inorg. Biochem. 76 :133â€“140.
Suwalsky M, Ungerer B, Villena F, Norris B, Cardenas H, Zatta P (2001) Effects of AlCl3 on toad skin, human erythrocytes, and model cell membranes. Brain Res Bull 55:205â€“210
Reinke CM, Breitkreutz J, Leuenberger H (2003) Aluminium in over-the-counter drugs: risks outweigh benefits? Drug Saf 26(14):1011â€“1025
Gupta VB, Anitha S, Hegde ML, Zecca L, Garruto RM, Ravid R, Shankar SK, Stein R, Shanmugavelu P, Jagannatha Rao KS (2005) Aluminium in Alzheimerâ€™s disease: are we still at a crossroad? Cell Mol Life Sci 62(2):143â€“158
Ochmanski W, Barabasz W (2000) Aluminium-occurrence and toxicity for organisms. Przegl Lek 57:665â€“668
Becaria A, Campbell A, Bondy SC (2002) Aluminum as a toxicant. Toxicol Ind Health 18(7):309â€“320
Solfrizzi V, Colacicco AM, Dâ€™Introno A, Capurso C, Parigi AD, Capurso SA, Torres F, Capurso A, Panza F (2006) Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 10(2â€“3):303â€“330
SantibaÂ´nËœez M, Bolumar F, GarcÄ±Â´a AM (2007) Occupational risk factors in Alzheimerâ€™s disease: a review assessing the quality of published epidemiological studies. Occup Environ Med 64(11):723â€“732
Cordeiro JM, Silva VS, Oliveira CR, Goncalves PP (2003) Aluminium-induced impairment of Ca2Â¬+ modulatory action on GABA transport in brain cortex nerve terminals. J Inorg Biochem 15, 97(1):132â€“142
Kaizer RR, CorreË†a MC, Spanevello RM, Morsch VM, Mazzanti CM, Goncalves JF, Schetinger MR (2005) Acetylcholinesterase activation and enhanced lipid peroxidation after long-term exposure to low levels of aluminum on different mouse brain regions J. Inorg Biochem 99(9):1865â€“1870
Brenner S (2002) Aluminum neurotoxicity is reduced by dantrolene and dimethyl sulfoxide in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Biol Trace Elem Res 86(1):85â€“89
SuaÂ´rez-FernaÂ´ndez MB, Soldado AB, Sanz-Medel A, Vega JA, Novelli A, FernaÂ´ndez SaÂ´nchez MT (1999) Aluminum induced degeneration of astrocytes occurs via apoptosis and results in neuronal death. Brain Res 835(2):125â€“136
Synzynys BI, Sharetskii AN, Kharlamova OV (2004) Immunotoxicity of aluminum chloride. Gig Sanit 4:70â€“72
Varella SD, Pozetti GL, Vilegas W, Varanda EA (2004) Mutagenic activity in waste from an aluminum products factory in Salmonella/microsome assay. Toxicol In Vitro 18:895â€“900
Gaitonde BB, Raiker KP, Shroff FN, Patel JR (1957) Pharmacological studies with malakanguni, an indigenous tranquillizing drug (preliminary report), Current Medical Practice 1:619-621.
Nadkarni AK (1976) Indian Materia Medica. Edn 3, Vol. I, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, pp. 296.
Karanth KS, Padma TK, Guruswami MN (1981) Influence of Celastrus oil on learning and memory. Arogya J Health Sci. 7:83-86.
Sudha Parimala, Shashidhar GH, Sridevi CH, Jyothi V, Suthakaran R (2009) Antiinflammatory activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed. International journal of pharmtech research 1(4) 1326-1329.
Russo A, Izzo AA, Cardile V, Borrelli F, Vanella A (2001) Indian medicinal plants as antiradicals and DNA cleavage protectors. Phytomed. 8(2):125-132.
Kumar MHV, Gupta YK (2002) Antioxidant property of Celastrus paniculatus willd: a possible mechanism in enhancing cognition. Phytomed. 9(4):302-311.
Smith CD, Carney JM, Starke-Reed PE, Oliver CN, Stadtman RE, Floyd RA, Markesbery WR (1991) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:10 540
Mathur NT, Varma M, Dixit VP (1993) Hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Drugs. 30:76-82.
Patil KS, Suryavanshi J (2007) Effect of Celastrus paniculatus Willd: Seed on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Phcog Mag. 3(11):177-181.
Pavanandt K, Kyle Webster H, Yongvanitchit K, Kun-anake A, Dechatiwonse T, Nutakul W, Bansiddhi J (1989) Schizontocidal activity of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Phytother Res. 3(4):136-139.
Patel RP, Trivedi BM (1962) The in vitro antibacterial activity of some medicinal oils. Indian J Med Res. 50:218-222.
Vonshak A, Barazani O, Sathiyamoorthy P, Shalev R, Vardy D, Golan-Goldhirsh A (2003) Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against cutaneous pathogens. Phytother Res. 17(9):123-1125.
Gong QH, Wu Q, Huang XN, Sun AS, Shi JS (2005) Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on aluminum induced brain dysfunction in rats. Life Sci 77(2):140â€“148
Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D (2007) Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol 111(1):56â€“62
Luo Y, Nie J, Gong QH, Lu YF, Wu Q, Shi JS (2007) Protective effects of icariin against learning and memory deficits induced by aluminium in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34(8):792â€“795
Pan R, Qiu S, Lu DX, Dong J (2008) Curcumin improves learning and memory ability and its neuroprotective mechanism in mice. Chin Med J (Engl) 121(9):832â€“839
Kamal Saini, Chaudhary A, Sharma RK (2009) Biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme in cerebellum of ageing albino rats vis a vis effect of Celastrus paniculatus. Annals of neurosciences 16(3): 103-105.
Sumathi T, Shobana C, Rathina Kumari B, Nisha Nandhini D (2011) Protective role of cynodon dactylon in Ameliorating the Aluminium-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain Regions Biol Trace Elem Res (2011) 144:843â€“853.
Paxinos G, Watson C (1982) The rat brain in sterotaxic coordinates. Academic, New York
Devasagayam TPA, Tarachand V (1987) Decreased lipid peroxidation in rat kidney during gestation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 145:134â€“138
Moron M, Depierre JW, Mannervik BT (1979) Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S- transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 582:67â€“78
Rotruck JT, Popa AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstar WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of GPx. Science 179:588â€“90.
Carlberg I, Mannervik B (1985) Glutathione reductase. Methods Enzymol 113:484-490
Marklund S, Marklund G (1974) Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European Journal of Biochemistry 47:469â€“474
Aebi, H.,1984. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 105, 121â€“126.
Bonting SC: In: Membranes and ion transport. Bittar EE (Ed) Wiley Interscience London 1970:257â€“263.
Ohinishi et al., (1982) A comparative study of plasma membrane magnesium ion ATPase activities in normal, regenerating and malignant cells. Biochem Biophys Acta 684:67-74.
Hjerten S, Pan H (1983) Purification and characterization of two forms of a low affinity calcium ion ATPase from erythrocyte membranes. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 728:281-288
Dasgupta S and Ghosh S (1993) Nicotine induced alterations in brain acid and alkaline phosphatase activities. Ind. J. Physiol. Allied. Sci., 47: 200-206.
Bergmeyer, H. U. and Bernt, E. (1963) Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. (Ed. Bergmeyer HU) Academic Press, New York, p.837.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Ranell RJ (1951) Protein measurements with the Follinâ€™s phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265â€“275
Deloncle R, Huguet F, Babin P, Fernandez B, Quellard N Guillard O (1999) Chronic administration of aluminium L-glutamate in young mature rats: effects on iron levels and lipid peroxidation in selected brain areas. Toxicol. 104:65â€“73.
Johnson VJ, Kim SH, Sharma RP (2005) Aluminum-maltolate induces apoptosis and necrosis in neuro-2a cells: Potential role for p53 signaling. Toxicol. Sci., 83: 329-339.
Nehru, B. and Anand, P. (2005): Oxidative damage following chronic aluminium exposure in adult and pup rat brains. J. Tra. Elem. Med. Biol. 19:203â€“208.
Christen Y (2000) Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 71: 6215- 6295.
Savory J, Herman MM, Ghribi O (2003) Intracellular mechanisms underlying aluminum induced apoptosis in rabbit brain. J. Inorg. Biochem. 97: 151-154.
Dua R and Gill KD (2001) Aluminum phosphide exposure: Implications on rat brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence system. Pharmacol Toxicol 89:315â€“9.
Wu D, Cederbaum I (2003) Alcohol, Oxidative Stress, and Free Radical Damage. Alcohol Res. Health, 27: 277-284.
Yousef, M.I. (2004): Aluminum induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid. Toxicol., 199:47â€“57.
Flora SJS, Mehta A, Satsangi K, Kannan GM, Gupta M (2003) Aluminum induced oxidative stress in rat brain: response to combined administration of citric acid and HEDTA. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part C, 134:319â€“28.
GomÙŽez M, Esparza JL, NoguÃ©s MR, Giralt M, CabrÃ© M, Domingo JL (2005) Prooxidant activity of aluminum in the rat hippocampus: gene expression of antioxidant enzymes after melatonin administration. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 38: 104â€“111.
Albendea CD, Trullen EMG, Broto LE, Miana-Mena FG, Plano SM, Gonzales MCR, BallarÄ±n EM, Garcia JJ (2007) Melatonin reduces lipid and protein oxidative damage in synaptosomes due to aluminum. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol 21:261â€“268
Kumar P, Taha A, Sharma D, Kale RK, Baquer NZ (2008) Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on monoamine oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin accumulation in aging rat brain regions. Biogerontol. 4: 283â€“284.
Tripathi S, Mahdia AA, Nawaba A, Chandera R, Hasanb M, Siddiquib MS, Mahdic F, Mitrad K Bajpaid VK (2009) Influence of age on aluminum induced lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin in frontal cortex of rat brain: A behavioral, biochemical and ultrastructural study. Brain Res. 1253:107â€“116.
Suzuki H, Takeda M, Nakamura Y, Tada K, Hariguchi S, Nishimura T (1988) Activities of lysosomal enzymes in rabbit brain with experimental neurofibrillary changes. Neurosci. Lett., 89: 234-239.
Hussain AS, Cantor AH, Jonson TH, Yokel RA (1990) Effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 69: 985â€“991.
Carla M, Alice S, Ramos A, Azevedo MF, Lima CF, Fernandes-Ferreira M, Cristina Pereira-Wilson (2009) Sage Tea Drinking Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Defences in Humans Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10:3937-3950.
Cohen S. (1970) Phosphatases, In: Handbook of Neurochemistry. 3rd edn, (Ed. Lajtha A) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 87-131.
Bihaqi SW, Sharma M, Singh AP, Tiwari M (2009) Neuroprotective role of Convolvulus pluricaulis on aluminium induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. J. Ethnopharmacol. 124(3):409-15.
Matyja E. (2000): Aluminum enhances glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus." Folia Neuropathol. 38(2):47-53.
Brodal S, 1992. The Central Nervous System: Structure and Function. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Yokel RA, (1983) Repeated systemic aluminium exposure effects on classical conditioning of the rabbit. Neurobehau. Toxicol. Teratol., 5: 41-46.
Frank H (2006) Aluminum a Toxic Element Link to many Diseases in Humans, Retrieved from: http://www.luminet.net/2wenomh/hydro/a/.html.
Lima PDL, Leite DS, Vasconcellos MC, Cavalcanti BC, Santos RA, Costa-Lotufo LA, Pessoa C, Moraes MO, Burbano RR (2007) Genotoxic effects of aluminum chloride in cultured human lymphocytes treated in different phases of cell cycle. Food Chem Toxicol 45:1154â€“1159
Bondy SC, Kirstein S (1996) The promotion of iron-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in nerve tissue by aluminium. Mol Chem Neuropathol 27:185â€“194
Bondy SC, Liu D, Guo-Ross S (1998) Aluminum treatment induces nitric oxide synthase in the rat brain. Neurochem Int 33:51â€“54
Wyllie AH (1993) Apoptosis (The 1992 Frank Rose memorial lecture). Br J Cancer 67:205â€“208
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.