• Plernpit Yasin Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  • Phenphicha Wanachantararuk Department of , Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  • Jidaphatinoi Jidaphatinoi Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  • Kanchana Dumri Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.


Objective: The objective of the present work is to analyze that the extracts of 25 Thai aromatic plants used in Thai food recipes were subjected to evaluated antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus mutans which have been known as bacterial inducing halitosis.

Methods: Disk diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by broth microdilution were used to determine the antibacterial activity.

Results: The results revealed that three plant extracts, namely Piper betle Linn., Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance, and Alpinia galangal (L.) Wild can inhibit the growth of both halitosis inducing bacteria with strong activity. Among these, the extract of P. betle Linn. is the most effective in inhibiting both bacteria followed by E. stoechadosmum Hance and A. galangal (L.) Wild, respectively. The MIC (mg/ml) values of the extracts which can inhibit F. nucleatum were ranging from 1.56 to 12.50, and the MBCs (mg/ml) values were ranging from 3.125 to 25.00. In addition, the MICs and MBCs of the extracts which can inhibit S. mutans were found that 1.56–25.00 and 3.125–50.00, respectively.

Conclusion: The extracts obtained from P. betle, A. galangal, and E. stoechadosmum displayed good activity against F. nucleatum and S. mutans and these extracts could be a potential source of new antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Thai aromatic plants, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Halitosis.


1. Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:183-93.
2. Aleksic V, Knezevic P. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L. Microbiol Res 2014;169:240-54.
3. Babitha GA, Ansu KP, Shobha P, Shiva C, Thimma S, Kishore B. Betle Leaf-a Pathogen’s engima. Int J Curr Res 2017;9:53229-31.
4. Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. J Pharm Anal 2016;6:71-9.
5. Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;45:493-6.
6. Cortelli JR, Barbosa MD, Westphal MA. Halitosis: A review of associated factors and therapeutic approach. Braz Oral Res 2008;22 Suppl 1:44-54.
7. Dung XN, Tarn TN, Kruk C, Leclercq AP. Composition of the oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam. J Essent Oil Res 1991;3:115-6.
8. Gagari E, Kabani S. Adverse effects of mouthwash use. A review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995;80:432-9.
9. Greenberg M, Urnezis P, Tian M. Compressed mints and chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract are effective against bacteria responsible for oral malodor. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:9465-9.
10. Gurbani K, Archana S, Kaustubh PP, Gopalakrishnan D, Abhishek S, Sachin D. Chlorhexidine: First to be known, still a gold standard anti-plaque agent. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2015;6:1407-24.
11. Handa SS, Khanuja SP, Longo G, Rakesh DD. Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, No 66. 1st ed. Italy: United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology; 2008. p. 21-22.
12. Lamont RJ, Demuth DR, Davis CA, Malamud D, Rosan B. Salivary-agglutinin-mediated adherence of Streptococcus mutans to early plaque bacteria. Infect Immun 1991;59:3446-50.
13. Lewis DW, Ismail AI. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian task force on the periodic health examination. CMAJ 1995;152:836-46.
14. de Abreu Costa L, Henrique Fernandes Ottoni M, Dos Santos MG, Meireles AB, Gomes de Almeida V, de Fátima Pereira W, et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) decreases cell proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 cytokines production in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Molecules 2017;22:1-10.
15. Lourith N, Kanlayavattanakul M. Oral malodour and active ingredients for treatment. Int J Cosmet Sci 2010;32:321-9.
16. Ramji N, Ramji N, Iyer R, Chandrasekaran S. Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83:149-52.
17. Rosenberg M. The science of bad breath. Sci Am 2002;286:72-9.
18. Teanpaisan R, Kawsud P, Pahumunto N, Puripattanavong J. Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity in Thai medicinal plant extracts against oral microorganisms. J Tradit Complement Med 2017;7:172-7.
19. Zaidan MR, Noor Rain A, Badrul AR, Adlin A, Norazah A, Zakiah I, et al. In vitro screening of five local medicinal plants for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. Trop Biomed 2005;22:165-70.
20. Deshpande SN, Kadam DG. GCMS analysis and antibacterial activity of Piper betle (Linn) leaves against Streptococcus mutans. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:99-101.
21. Dinesh MD, Anjana JC, Neethu G, Nithya J, Sharannya M, Meenatchisundaram S. Anti-cariogenic activity of piper betel leaf extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis by in vitro. Quest J 2016;3:50-4.
22. Da Silva LI, Karuppusamy A, Miyajima F, Violante IM, Bieski IG, Balogun SO, De Oliveira Martins DT. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of selected plants used by populations from Juruena valley, legal amazon, Brazil. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:179-91.
23. Lavanya J, Selvam SP, Priya MJ, Jacintha P, Aradana M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants against human oral pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:71-8.
193 Views | 215 Downloads
How to Cite
Yasin, P., P. Wanachantararuk, J. Jidaphatinoi, and K. Dumri. “ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME THAI AROMATIC PLANTS AGAINST ORAL PATHOGENS INDUCING HALITOSIS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 465-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i1.28404.
Original Article(s)