• J. Nomila Merlin
  • I.V.S. Nimal Christhudas
  • P. Agastian Assistant professor,Research Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology,School of Life Science,Loyola College, Chennai – 600 034, India.


The present study aimed to evaluate optimize the growth and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Tylophora indica. Based on the morphological and molecular characteristic, the isolate was identified as Fusarium solani. Modified liquid medium (M2D) was used as a basal medium for growth and antibacterial activity. The growth and metabolite production were optimized with 4% dextrose, 0.05% yeast extract and aspartic acid (0.01%) as carbon, nitrogen and amino acid respectively. The optimum pH and temperature of the strain were 6.0, 25±2 °C observed for growth and secondary metabolite production. The 9th day was found to be optimum incubation period of growth and secondary metabolite production. The metabolite showed maximum inhibition against Enterococcus faecalis, lowest inhibition zone was against Yersinia enterocolitica. The ESI-MS analysis of bio active compound shows the peak at 301m/z.

Key words:

Endophytic fungus, Tylophora indica, antibacterial activity, Medium Optimization, ESI -MS


1. Bala S, Uniyal GC, Chattopadhyay SK, Tripathi V, Sashidhara KV, Kulshrestha M, Sharma RP, Jain SP. Analysis of taxol and major taxoids in Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana. J.Chromatography.1999; 8: 239-244.
2. Carroll G, Fungal endophytes in stems and leaves: from latent pathogens to mutualistic symbiont. Eco. 1988; 69: 2-9.
3. Deng BW, Liu KH, Chen WQ, Ding XW, Xie XC, Fusarium solani, Tax-3, a new endophytic taxol producing fungus from Taxus chinensis. W J Microbiol Biotech. 2009; 25: 139-143.
4. Digrak M Eluk SZ, Determination of some fungal metabolite as influenced by temperature, time, pH and sugars by bioassay method. T J Biol. 2001; 25: 197-203.
5. Donaldson GR, Atkinson MR, Murray AW, Inhibition of protein synthesis in Ehrlich ascites-tumor cells by the phenanthrene alkaloids tylophorine, tylocrebrine and cryptopleurine. Biochem Biophys Res Commu. 1968; 31: 104-109.
6. Eloff JN, which extract should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants. J Ethno. 1998; 60: 1-8.
7. Ganley RJ, Brunsfeld SJ, Newcombe GA, community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine. Pro Nat Aca Sci Uni Sta Ame . 2004; 101: 10107-10112.
8. Gellert E, Theindolizidine alkaloids. J Nat Pro. 1982; 45: 50-73.
9. Gomez A, Gomez AA, Statistical procedure for agricultural research. 2nd edn. John Willy and Sons, Kwanchi. 1984; pp 188-191.
10. Gopalakrishnan C, Shankaranarayan D, Nazimudeen SK, Kameswaran L, Effect of tylophorine, a major alkaloid of Tylophora indica, on immunopathological and inflammatory reactions. Ind J Med Res. 1980; 71: 940-948.
11. Gunasekaran S, Poorniammal R, Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production from Penicillium sp. Under submerged cultivation. Afr J Bio. 2008; 7: 1894-1898.
12. Hansen OH, Ecology, physiology, and biochemistry of blue green algae. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1968; 22: 47-57.
13. Huang Y, Wang J, Li G, Zheng Z, Su W, Antitumor and antifungal activities in endophytic fungi isolated from pharmaceutical plants Taxus mairei, Cephalataxus fortunei and Torreya grandis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001; 31: 163–167
14. Hutter R, Design of culture media capable of provoking wide gene expression. In: Bullock Jd, Nisbet LJ, Winstanley DJ (eds) Bioactive microbial products, Search and Discovery. Academic Press, London. 1982; pp 37-50.
15. Jittra K, Kulvadee D, Nattawut B, Tanapong B, Pranee R, Samran P, Palangpon K, Chawanee T, Dihydronaphthalenones from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. BCC14842. Tetra. 2011; 67: 7540-7547.
16. Johri BN, Endophytes to the rescue of plants. Currt Sci. 2006; 90 (10): 1315-1316.
17. Kathuria V, Kaushik N, Evaluation of insecticidal property of some plant species against Helicoverpa armigera. Ind J Agri Sci. 2006; 76: 614-617.
18. Kim RN, Lim SJ, Hong SI, Kim SW, Optimization of feed conditions in a 2.5-I fed-batch culture using rice oil to improve cephalosporin C production by Cephalosporium acremonium M25. W J Microbiol Biotech. 2005; 21: 787-789.
19. Kour A, Shawl AS, Rehman S, Sultan P, Qazi PH, Suden P, Khajuria RK, Verma V, Isolation and identification of an endophytic strain of Fusarium oxysporum producing podophyllotoxin from Juniperus recurva. W J Microbiol Biotech. 2008; 24: 1115-1121.
20. Le Duy A, Zajic JE, A geometrical approach for differentiation of an experimental function at a point: applied to growth and production. Biotech Bioeng. 1973; 15: 805-815.
21. Lin X, Lu CH, Huang YJ, Zheng ZH, Su WJ, Shen YM, Endophytic fungi from a pharmaceutical plant, Camptotheca acuminata: isolation, identification and bioactivity. W J Microbiol Biotech. 2007; 23: 1037-1040.
22. Lu H, Zou WX, Meng JC, Hu J, Tan RX, New bioactive metabolites produced by Colletotrichum sp., an endophytic fungus in Artemisia annual. Plant Sci. 2000; 151: 67-73.
23. Miller JD, Mackenzie S, Foto M, Adams GW, Findlay JA, Needles of white spruce inoculated with rugulosin-producing endophytes contains rugulosin reducing spruce budworm growth rate. Mycol Res. 2002; 106: 471-479.
24. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolke RH, Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 1995; vol. 6th ed. ASM, Washington, DC.
25. Noaman NH, Fattah A, Khaleafa M, Zaky SH, Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of Synechococcus leopoliensis. Microbiol Res. 2004; 159: 395-402.
26. Nomila Merlin J, Nimal Christhudas IVS, Praveen Kumar P, Kumar M, Agastian P, Taxol production by endophytic Fusariumsolani LCPANCF01 from Tylophora indica. JAIR. 2012; 1(5): 281-285.
27. Porras-Alfaro A, Herrera J, Sinsabaugh RL, Odenbach KJ, Lowrey T, Natvig DO, Novel root fungal consortium associated with a dominant desert grass. App Env Microbiol 2008; 74: 2805-2813.
28. Radu S, Kqueen CY, Preliminary screening of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Malaysia for antimicrobial and antitumour activity. M J Med Sci. 2002; 9(2): 23-33.
29. Reddy BU, Antimicrobial activity of Datura stramonium L. and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Pharmacol. 2009; 1: 1293-1300.
30. Redman RS, Sheehan KB, Stout RG, Rodriquez RJ, Henson JM, Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis. Sci. 2002; 298, 1581.
31. Rubini MR, Rute TSR, Pomella AW, Cristina SM, Arajo LW, Santos DRD, Azevedo JL, Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cocao (Thebroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellisperniciosa, causal agent of Witches’ Broom disease. Int J Bio Sci. 2005; 1:24-33.
32. Saikia D, Khanuja SPS, Shasany AK, Darokar MP, Kukreja AK, Kumar S, Assessment of diversity among Taxus wallichiana accessions from northeast India using RAPD analysis. PGR Newsletter FAO-IPGRI .2005; 121:27–31.
33. Sameer AM, Anne SM, Ulf T, Colorimetric characterization for comparative analysis of fungal pigments and natural food colorants. J Agri Food Che .2006; 54: 7027-7035.
34. Shiono Y, Tsuchinari M, Shimanuki K, Miyajima T, Murayama T, Koseki T, Laatsch H, Takanami K, et al. Fusaristatins A and B, two new cyclic lipopeptides from an endophytic Fusarium sp. J Ant. 2007; 60, 309.
35. Shivpuri DN, Singhal SC Prakash D, Treatment of asthma with an alcoholic extract of Tylophoraindica: a crossover, double-blind study. Ann A A Immunol. 1972 ; 30: 407-412
36. Stinson M, Ezra D, Hess WM, Sears J, Strobel G, An endophytic Gliocladium sp. of Eucryphia cordifolia producing selective volatile antimicrobial compounds. Plant Sci. 2003; 165: 913-922.
37. Strobel GA, Endophytes as sources of bioactive products. Micro Infec. 2003; 5: 535-544.
38. Tan RX, Zou WX, Endophytes: A rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Pro Re. 2001; 18: 448-459.
39. Turner WB, Fungal metabolite. Academic Press, London and New York. 1971
40. Zhang CL, Liu SP, Lin FC, Kubicek CP, Druzhinina IS, Trichoderma taxi sp. nov., an endophytic fungus from Chinese yew Taxus mairei. FEMS Microbiol Lett . 2007; 270: 90-96.
770 Views | 944 Downloads
How to Cite
Merlin, J. N., I. N. Christhudas, P. P. KUMAR, and P. Agastian. “OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH AND BIOACTIVE METABOLITE PRODUCTION: FUSARIUM SOLANI.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 6, no. 7, Aug. 2013, pp. 98-103, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/288.