• Dinesh Dhingra Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India.
  • Deepak Deepak Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India.


Objective: Flowers of Tecomella undulata have been reported to be a rich source of flavonoids such as rutin and quercetin. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of flowers of T. undulata on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in Swiss young male albino mice.

Methods: The mice were subjected to CUMS for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the flowers (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) per se was administered for 21 successive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test were used to evaluate the effect of the extract on depression-like behavior in mice.

Results: Extract of flowers of T. undulata (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity of the extract. Stress-induced reduced sucrose preference was significantly restored by the extract. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice by the extract and fluoxetine. The extract significantly reversed stress-induced increase in brain malondialdehyde levels; plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; and also significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase levels. There was no significant effect of the extract on brain MAO-A activity in both unstressed and stressed mice.

Conclusion: These results indicated that ethanol extract of flowers of T. undulata showed significant antidepressant-like activity in mice subjected to CUMS, probably through alleviation of oxidative stress and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.

Keywords: Antidepressant, Chronic unpredictable mild stress, Depression, Tail suspension test, Tecomella undulata.


1. Schechter LE, Ring RH, Beyer CE, Hughes ZA, Khawaja X, Malberg JE. Innovative approaches for the development of antidepressant drugs: Current and future strategies. Neurotherapeutics 2005;2:590-611.
2. World Health Organization. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. p. 1-24.
3. Manji HK, Drevets WC, Charney DS. The cellular neurobiology of depression. Nat Med 2001;7:541-7.
4. Leonard B, Maes M. Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012;36:764-85.
5. Tanabe A, Nomura S, Rinsho N. Pathophysiology of depression. Nihon Rinsho 2007;65:1585-90.
6. Pariante CM, Lightman SL. The HPA axis in major depression: Classical theories and new developments. Trends Neurosci 2008;31:464-8.
7. Young EA, Haskett RF, Murphy-Weihberg V, Watson SJ, Akil H. Loss of glucocorticoid fast feedback in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatr 1991;48:693-9.
8. Nestler EJ, Barrot M, DiLeone RJ, Eisch AJ, Gold SJ, Monteggia LM. Neurobiology of depression. Neuron 2002;34:13-25.
9. Willner P, Towell A, Sampson D, Sophokleous S, Muscat R. Reduction of sucrose preference by chronic unpredictable mild stress, and its restoration by a tricyclic antidepressant. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1987;93:358-64.
10. Willner P. Validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress model of depression: A 10-year review and evaluation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1997;134:319-29.
11. Madrigal JL, Olivenza R, Moro MA, Lizasoain I, Lorenzo P, Rodrigo J. Glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction are induced by chronic stress in rat brain. Neuropsychopharmacol 2001;24:420-9.
12. O’Donnell JM, Shelton RC. Drug therapy of depression and anxiety disorders. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12thed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. p. 397-416.
13. Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum perforatum in major depressive disorder in comparison with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: A meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33:118-21.
14. Rohilla R, Garg M. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tecomella undulata. Int J Green Pharm 2014;8:1-6.
15. Singh D, Gupta RS. Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Tecomella undulata against alcohol and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Life Sci Med Res 2011;26:1-8.
16. Danya U, Udhayasankar MR, Arumugasamy K, Baluprakash T. Bioactivity of Tecomella undulata (G. Don) Seem (Family-Bignoniaceae) on human pathogens. South Asian J Biol Sci 2012;2:71 82.
17. Alvala R, Alvala M, Sama V, Dharmarajan S, Ullas JV, MR B. Scientific evidence for traditional claim of anti-obesity activity of Tecomella undulata bark. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;148:441-8.
18. Kumawat R, Sharma S, Kumar S. An overview for various aspects of multifaceted, health care Tecomella undulata seem plant. Acta Pol Pharm 2012;69:993-6.
19. Choudhary GP. Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Tecomella undulata Linn. in mice. Asian J Pharm Biol Res 2011;1:67 70.
20. Azam MM. Anti-HIV agents and other compounds from Tecomella undulata. Orient J Chem 1999;15:375-7.
21. Kumar S, Sharma S, Vasudeva N, Ranga V. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant potentials of ethanol extract from Tecomella undulata. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2012;4:33.
22. Sharma RA, Bhardwaj R, Yadav A. Antioxidant activity of total phenolic compounds of Tecomella undulata. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:96-100.
23. Ahmad F, Khan RA, Rashad S. Preliminary screening of methanol extracts of Celastrus peniculatus and Tecomella undulata for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;42:193-8.
24. Richa R, Nahida S, Vidhu A. Densitometric validation of lapachol in Tecomella undulata seem bark by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:87-90.
25. Laghari AQ, Memon S, Nelofar A, Laghari AH. Tecomella undulata G. Don: A rich source of flavanoids. Ind Crops Prod 2013;43:213-7.
26. Taneja SC, Bhatnagar RP, Jiwari HP. Chemical constituents of flowers of Tecomella undulata. Indian J Chem 1975;13:427-8.
27. Machado DG, Bettio LE, Cunha MP, Santos AR, Pizzolatti MG, Brighente IM, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinu smolle L. in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;587:163-8.
28. Bhutada P, Mundhada Y, Bansod K, Ubgade A, Quazi M, Umathe S, et al. Reversal by quercetin of corticotrophin releasing factor induced anxiety-and depression-like effect in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010;34:955-60.
29. Kandi P, Hayslett RL. Nicotine and 17b-estradiol produce an antidepressant-like effect in female ovariectomized rats. Brain Res Bull 2011;84:224-8.
30. Valecha R, Dhingra D. Antidepressant-like activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Br J Pharm Res 2014;5:576-93.
31. Dhingra D, Bansal Y. Antidepressant-like activity of beta-carotene in unstressed and chronic unpredictable mild stressed mice. J Funct Foods 2014;7:425-34.
32. Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1985;85:367-70.
33. Chhillar R, Dhingra D. Antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2013;27:409-18.
34. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnock JS, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [N-15N]-labelled nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 1982;126:131-8.
35. Bartos J, Pesez M. Colorimetric and fluorimetric determination of steroids. Pure Appl Chem 1979;151:2157-69.
36. Charles M, McEwan J. MAO activity in rabbit serum. In: Tabor H, Tabor CW, editors. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 17B. New York and London: Academic Press; 1977. p. 692-8.
37. Schurr A, Livne A. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase from brain by hashish components. Biochem Pharmacol 1976;25:1201-3.
38. Henry RJ, Winkelman JW. Clinical Chemistry Principles and Techniques. New York: Harper and Row; 1974. p. 96-8.
39. Wills ED. Mechanisms of lipid peroxide formation in tissues. Role of metals and haematin proteins in the catalysis of the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1965;98:238-51.
40. Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR. Bromobenz induced liver necrosis: Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzenoxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacol 1974;11:151-69.
41. Claiborne A. Catalase activity. In: Greenwald RA, editors. Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. Boca Raton: CRC; 1985. p. 283-4.
42. Zhao D, Zheng L, Qi L, Wang S, Guan L, Xia Y, et al. Structural features and potent antidepressant effects of total sterols and beta-sitosterol extracted from Sargassum horneri. Mar Drugs 2016;14:1-11.
43. Willner P. Chronic mild stress (CMS) revisited: Consistency and behavioral-neurobiological in the effects of CMS. Neuropsychobiol 2005;52:90-110.
44. Willner P. Animal models as simulations of depression. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1991;12:131-6.
45. Pan Y, Zhang WY, Xia X, Kong LD. Effects of icariin on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis action and cytokine levels in stressed sprague-dawley rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2399-403.
46. Sousa N, Cerqueira JJ, Almeida OF. Corticosteroid receptors and neuroplasticity. Brain Res 2008;57:561-70.
47. Mason BL, Pariante CM. The effects of antidepressants on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Drug News Perspect 2006;19:603 8.
48. Jindal A, Mahesh R, Bhatt S. Etazolate rescues behavioral deficits in chronic unpredictable mild stress model: Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and brain derived neurotrophic factor level. Neurochem Int 2013;63:465-75.
49. Bilici M, Efe H, Koroglu MA, Uydu HA, Bekaroglu M, Deger O. Anti-oxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in major depression: Alterations by antidepressant treatments. J Affect Disord 2001;64:43 51.
50. Bajpai A, Verma AK, Srivastava M, Srivastava R. Oxidative stress and major depression. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:CC04-7.
51. Dhingra D, Bansal S. Antidepressant-like activity of plumbagin in unstressed and stressed mice. Pharmacol Rep 2015;67:1024-32.
52. Novio S, Nunez MJ, Amigo G, Freire-Garabal M. Effects of fluoxetine on the oxidative status of peripheral blood leucocytes of restrain stressed mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2011;109:365-71.
53. Lee CY, Cheng HM, Sim SM. Mulberry leaves protect rat from immobilization stress-induced inflammation. Biofactors 2007;31:25 33.
54. Bhatt S, Mahesh R, Jindal A, Devadoss T, Dhar AK. Neuropharmacological evaluation of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (6 g) on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced changes in behavioral and brain oxidative stress parameters in mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46:191-6.
130 Views | 156 Downloads
How to Cite
Dhingra, D., and D. Deepak. “ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS OF TECOMELLA UNDULATA IN MICE SUBJECTED TO CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE MILD STRESS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 130-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i1.28981.
Original Article(s)