PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA FISTULA EXTRACTS AGAINST ULTRAVIOLET C INJURY IN HUMAN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Indian laburnum (Cassia fistula L. [CF]) leaf extracts and their impact on ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation-induced damage on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells.
Methods: The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging ability of CF leaf extracts were determined by in vitro methods such as 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and reducing power. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and preliminary phytochemical screening were done to ensure the pharmacological effects of the extracts. The UVC radiation at wavelength 254 nm was used to irradiate HCE cells and cell viability was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay.
Results: Extracts at the concentration of 200 μg/ml did not affect the cell viability of HCE cells. Almost 50% cell death was observed after UVC irradiation at a dose of 200 J/m2. Both extracts showed a protective effect by increasing the cell viability of irradiated cells up to 57.28% and 62.39%. A dose-dependent increase in the TAC and reducing power of the extract was observed. The TPC in aqueous and ethanol extracts of CF leaves was 18.8 and 27.80 mg gallic acid equivalent/g sample while TFC was 8.47 and 16.5 mg quercetin equivalent per/gsample, respectively.
Conclusions: CF leaves are a potent source of bioactive compounds with good antioxidant potential. Exposure to UVC radiation cause harmful effects on HCE cells and the extracts have shown to have potent protective effects on UV light-induced oxidative stress in HCE cells.
2. Tenkate TD. Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation: A health risk assessment. Rev Environ Health 1999;14:187-209.
3. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Free radicals, other reactive species, and disease. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;3:617-783.
4. Bahorun T, Neergheen VS, Aruoma OI. Phytochemical constituents of Cassia fistula. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4:1530-40.
5. Siddhuraju P, Mohan PS, Becker K. Studies on the antioxidant activity of Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): A preliminary assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit pulp. Food Chem 2002;79:61-7.
6. Raji P, Abila MG, Renugadevi K, Samrot AV. Phytochemical screening and bioactivity studies of Cassia fistula leaves. Int J Chem Tech Res 2014;
7. Sangu PK, Sharma BK, Rajashekharan R, Prasad GP, Ala N. Medicinal properties of Aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn.). Int J Ayurveda Res 2011;
8. Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant. Routledge: Herbal Reference Library; 2017.
9. Parekh J, Chanda S.V. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turk J Biol 2007;31:53-8.
10. Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN, Kumar CK, Sanjay UP, Swamy BM, Kumar DV. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Trop J Pharm Res 2007;6:717-23.
11. Chanda SV, Parekh J, Karathia N. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegate L. bark. Afr J Biomed Res 2006;9:53-6.
12. Sakat S, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2:146-55.
13. Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337-41.
14. Rajan S, Gokila M, Jency P, Brindha P, Sujatha RK. Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2011;3:65-70.
15. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.
16. Kumar G, Karthik L, Rao KV. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Calotropisgigantea leaves-an in vitro study. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010;
17. Kumaran A, Karakumaran J. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2007;40:344-52.
18. Piersma AH. Validation of alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing. Toxicol Lett 2004;149:147-53.
19. Ahmed D, Khan MM, Saeed R. Comparative analysis of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of methanolic, hexanic and aqueous extracts from Adiantum caudatum leaves. Antioxidants 2015;4:394-409.
20. Irshad M, Zafaryab M, Singh M, Rizvi M. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula extracts. Int J Med Chem 2012;
21. Kulkarni A, Govindappa M, Chandrappa CP, Ramachandra YL, Koka PS. Phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula and it’s in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Adv Med Plant Res 2015;3:8-17.
22. Y?ld?r?m A, Mavi A, Oktay M, Kara AA, Algur ÖF, Bilalo?lu V. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tilia (Tilia argentea Desf ex DC), sage (Salvia triloba L.), and Black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5030-4.
23. Mohamed H, Ons M, Yosra ET, Rayda S, Neji G, Moncef N. Chemical composition and antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Periploca laevigata root bark extracts. J Sci Food Agric 2009;
24. Koleva II, Van Beek TA, Linssen JP, Groot AD, Evstatieva LN. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal 2002;13:8-17.
25. Benzie IF, Szeto YT. Total antioxidant capacity of teas by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:633-6.
26. Adedapo AA, Jimoh FO, Koduru S, Masika PJ, Afolayan AJ. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddle jasaligna. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009;9:21.
27. Sakat S, Tupe P, Juvekar A. Gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn (whole plant) experimental animals. Plant Med 2010;76:P090.
28. Garg VK, Jain ME, Sharma PK, Garg GA. Anti-inflammatory activity of Spinacia oleracea. Int J Pharm Prof Res 2010;1:1-4.
29. López-Lázaro M. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin. Mini Rev Med Chem 2009;9:31-59.
30. Zhang LL, Lin YM. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008;9:407-15.
31. Pappa A, Chen C, Koutalos Y, Townsend AJ, Vasiliou V. Aldh3a1 protects human corneal epithelial cells from ultraviolet-and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced oxidative damage. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;34:1178-89.
32. Li Z, Choi JH, Oh HJ, Park SH, Lee JB, Yoon KC. Effects of eye drops containing a mixture of omega-3 essential fatty acids and hyaluronic acid on the ocular surface in desiccating stress-induced murine dry eye. Curr Eye Res 2014;39:871-8.
33. Cavet ME, Harrington KL, Vollmer TR, Ward KW, Zhang JZ. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate in human corneal epithelial cells. Mol Vis 2011;17:533.
34. Lee JB, Kim SH, Lee SC, Kim HG, Ahn HG, Li Z, Yoon KC. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in human corneal epithelial cells: Protective effects of ethanol extracts of various medicinal plant mixtures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:4119-27.
35. Abid RI, Mahmood RI, Rajesh KP, Swamy BE. Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. Fruit extracts against induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:497-505.
36. Reddy NV, Pooja RG, Ganga MR, Sneha JA. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia fistula bark using high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:61-4.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.