• Parag A. Pednekar
  • Bhanu Raman



Objective: Multielement analysis was carried out on methanolic soxhlet leaf extract of Semecarpus anacardium using the ICP-AES technique.

Methods: ICP-AES technique is one of the most powerful and quick multi elemental analysis with high sensitivity. 41 elements Na, Mg, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Se, Al, S, Pb, Ba, Hg, As, B, P, Sr, Br, Ti, Bi, Ge, In, La, Li, Mo, Pd, Sb, Sc, Sn, Te, V, W, I, Th were screened.

Results: 12 elements were detected out of 41 elements in the above plant in various proportions depending on soil composition and the climate in which the plant grows.

Conclusion: The elements present in the medicinal plant plays an important role in the treatment of diseases as described in Ayurveda. The methanolic soxhlet leaf extract of Semecarpus anacardium showed the presence of essential elements that could enhance the curative process of ill health and the potentially toxic elements were not detected in the present plant extract.

Key words: ICP-AES, multielement analysis, Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.F.), Ayurveda.



[1].Desideri D, Meli MA, Roselli C. Determination of essential and non-essential elements in some medicinal plants by polarized X- ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDPXRF). Microchem. J 2010; 95: 174-180.

[2].WHO (1992). Cadmium, environmental health criteria, vol. 134. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[3].Sharma KR, Agrawal M, Marshall MF. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India. Food chem. Toxicol 2009; 47: 583-591.

[4].Khemnani S, Aswani B, Arora A, Sindal RS. Detection of heavy metal contents in the seed oil of Solanum Malongena (Egg Plant) of arid zone. International Journal of Basic and Applied Chemical Sciences 2012; 2(1): 59-65.

[5].Harrison RM, Chirgawi MB. The assessment of air and soil as contributors of some trace metals to vegetable plants. I: Use of a filtered air growth cabinet. Sci. Total Environ. 1989; 83: 13-34.

[6].Harrison RM, Chirgawi MB. The assessment of air and soil as contributors of some trace metals to vegetable plants. III: Experiments with field-grown plants. Sci. Total Environ. 1989; 83: 47-62.

[7].Djingova R, Kovacheva P, Wagner G, Markert B. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany. Sci. Total Environ. 2003; 308: 235-246.

[8].Pednekar PA, Raman B. Assessment of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.F.) leaf methanolic extract for their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 5(1): 170-174.

[9].Pednekar PA, Raman B. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical studies of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.F.) leaves. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4(3): 682-685.

[10].Pednekar PA, Raman B. The FT-IR spectrometric studies of vibrational bands of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.F. leaf, stem powder and extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6(1), 159-198.

[11].Raju D, Mehta UJ, Hazra S. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by various leaf fractions of Semecarpus anacardium L. tree. Trees - Structure and Function 2011; 25(2): 145-151.

[12].Abou-Arab AAK, Abou Donia MA. Heavy metals in Egyptian spices and medicinal plants and the effect of processing on their levels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000; 48: 2300-2304.

[13].Ajasa AMO, Bello MO, Ibrahim AO, Ogunwande IA, Olawore NO. Heavy trace metals and macronutrients status in herbal plants of Nigeria. Food Chem. 2004; 85: 67-71.

[14].Caldas ED, Machado LL. Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2004; 42: 599-603.

[15].Razic S, Onjia A, Dogo S, Slavkovic L, Popovic A. Determination of metal content in some herbal drugs empirical and chemometric approach. Talanta 2005; 67: 233-239.

[16].Maiga A, Diallo D, Bye R, Paulsen BS. Determination of some toxic and essential metal ions in medicinal and edible plants from Mali. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005; 53: 2316-2321.

[17].Lopez FF, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, Lopez MC. Aluminium levels in spices and aromatic herbs. Sci. Total Environ. 2000; 257: 191-197.

[18].Lozak A, Soltyk K, Ostapczuk P, Fijalek Z. Determination of selected trace elements in herbs and their infusions. Sci. Total Environ. 2002; 289: 33-40.

[19].Basgel S, Erdemoglu SB. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey. Sci. Total Environ. 2006; 359(1, Suppl 3): 82-89.

[20].Ozcan M. Determination of mineral contents of Turkish herbal tea (Salvia aucheri var. canescens) at different infusion periods. J. Med. Food 2005; 8: 110-112.

[21].Lesniewicz A, Jaworska K, Zyrnicki W. Macro and micronutrients and their bioavailability in Polish herbal medicaments. Food chem. 2006; 99: 670.

[22].Limmatvapirat C, Charoenteeraboon J, Phaechamud T. Simultaneous Analysis of Eleven Heavy Metals in Extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. by ICP-MS. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2012; 3(1): 744-750.

[23].Bentley G. Medicinal plants. vol. 1-4. India: Books and Periodicals Co; 1983.

[24].Dey AC. Indian medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic preparations report. India: Books and Periodicals Co; 1980.

[25].Nomita Devi K, Sarma HN, Kumar S. Estimation of essential and trace elements in some medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 2008; 266: 1605–1610.

[26].Chaturvedi UC, Shrivastava R, Upreti RK. Viral infections and trace elements: A complex interaction. Curr. Sci. 2004; 87(11): 1536-1554.

[27].Street RA. Heavy metals in medicinal plant products - An African perspective. South African Journal of Botany 2012; (82): 67–74.

[28].Serfor-Armah Y, Nyarko BJB, Akaho EHK, Kyere AWK, Osae S, Oppong- Boachie K, et al. Activation analysis of some essential elements in five medicinal plants used in Ghana. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem 2001; 250(1): 173-176.

[29].Dospatliev L, Kostadinov K, Mihaylova G, Katrandzhiev N. Determination of Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni) in egg plant. Trakia Journal of Sciences 2012; 10(2): 31-35.

[30].Osorio FV, Linas SL. Disorders of potassium metabolism. Schrier RW ed. Philadelphia: Current Medicine; 1998. p. 2-17

[31].Inam F, Deo S, Mahashabde R, Kadam N, Chopra G. Comparative account of heavy metal analysis of selected plant species by XRF scanning. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A1 2011; 658-661.

[32].Annalakshmi R, Uma R, Subash chandran G, Sahayam CS, Charles A. Evaluation of elemental content of leaves of Madhuca longifolia by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour 2012; 2 (4): 490-493.


[34].John Emsley. Nature's building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements. New ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2011.

[35].Berridge MJ, Bootman MD, Lipp P. Calcium - a life and death signal. Nature 1998; 395: 645-648.

[36].WHO (2009). Calcium and magnesium in drinking water, public health significance. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[37].WHO (2005). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials, Revised, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[38].Ashraf M, Hayat MQ, Samad AM. A study on elemental contents of medicinally important species of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) found Pakistan. J. Med. Plant. Res. 2010; 4(21): 2256-2263.

[39].Olivares M, Uauy R. Limits of metabolic tolerance to copper and biological basis for present recommendations and regulations, AJCN 1996; 63: 846S-852S.

[40].Ikeda S, Murakami T. Zinc chemical form in some traditional soy food, Journal of Food Sciences 1995; 60 (5): 1151-1156.

[41].Corn M. Handbook of hazardous materials. San Diego (CA): Academic Press; 1993.

[42]. Chaturvedi UC, Shrivastava R, Upreti RK. Viral infections and trace elements: A complex interaction. Curr. Sci. 2004; 87(11): 1536-1554.

[43].Robert PH. Role of dietary sodium in osteoporosis. J. American College of Nutr. 2006; 25: 271S–276S.

[44].Mido Y, Satake M, Sethi MS, Iqbal SA. Chemicals in the Environment. New Delhi: Discovery publishing house; 2003. p. 45-68

[45].El-Bahi SM, El-Dine NW, El-Shershaby A, et al. Elemental analysis of Egyptian phosphate fertilizer components. Health Phys 2004; 86: 303-307.

[46].WHO, 1998. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva.

[47].Kamath S, Pemiah B, Sekar R, Krishnaswamy S, Sethuraman S, Krishnan U. Mercury-based traditional herbo-metallic preparations: a toxicological perspective. Archives of Toxicology 2012; 86(6): 831.

[48].Lester G. Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruit nutritional quality and health functionality. Hort Technology 1997; 7: 222-227.

[49].Onianwa PC, Lawal JA, Ogunkeye AA, Orejimi BM. Cadmium and nickel composition of Nigerian foods. J. Food Composit. Anal. 2000; 13: 961–969.

[50].Alfrey AC, Hegg A, Miller N, Berl T, Berns A. Interrelationship between calcium and aluminium metabolism in dialysed uremic patients. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 1979; 2: 81–87.

[51].Zayed AM, Terry N. Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation. Plant Soil 2003; 249: 139-156.
529 Views | 319 Downloads
How to Cite
Pednekar, P. A., and B. Raman. “MULTIELEMENT DETERMINATION IN METHANOLIC SOXHLET LEAF EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM (LINN.F.) BY ICP-AES TECHNIQUE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 6, no. 7, Aug. 2013, pp. 132-7,