OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DIABETES: AN OVERVIEW
Oxidative stress is well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of lifestyle related diseases. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological
conditions including cancer, asthma, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. It is a state in which oxidation exceeds the antioxidant systems in the
body secondary to a loss of balance between them. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced from molecular oxygen as a result of normal cellular
metabolism and environmental factors such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke and sedentary lifestyle. ROS are highly reactive molecules that can
damage carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. There is considerable evidence that induction of oxidative stress is a key process in the onset
of diabetes. Lipid peroxidation owing to free radical activity plays an important role in complications of diabetes. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation
are a consequence of free radical activity in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The human body has several mechanisms to counter the effects of these
reactive species by the production of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione and catalase. Antioxidants can also be taken exogenously through the diet.
In this review article, we summarize the effect of oxidative stress in the development of diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Reactive oxygen species.
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