IN VITRO AND IN SILICO APPROACHES ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA METHANOLIC STEM EXTRACT
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanolic stem fraction of Tinospora cordifolia against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro and in silico approaches.
Methods: In agar disc diffusion method, the inhibitory zone produced by various concentrations of the fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition pattern. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were calculated by broth dilution method. The total DNA present in the fraction treated bacterial cultures was estimated and compared with control DNA. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures of the gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS) identified compounds were generated using ChemSketch tool. The docking studies were performed for analyzing the receptor and ligand interactions.
Results: The higher zone revealed the maximum inhibition of the growth of bacteria that were ranged from 2 mm to 6 mm for E. coli and 1.5 mm to 6.3±0.29 mm for S. aureus. MIC values showed that 30 μg/ml of the fraction was found as the effective dose. The DNA content isolated from the treated culture of both the strains was comparatively lesser than that of the untreated control culture. The GC–MS data analysis depicted the presence 15 major components in the fraction and the sharp peaks were obtained at time intervals 17.50, 20.27, 30.06, etc.
Conclusion: Thus, methanolic stem fraction of T. cordifolia possesses promising therapeutic activity against the urinary tract infection pathogens such as E. coli and S. aureus and a further exploration in the isolation and characterization such as plant-derived phytoconstituents would open up new ventures in the field of antibacterial drug discovery.
2. Abiramasundari G, Mohan GC, Pampapathi G, Sheela P, Shivamurugan S, Vijaykumar M, et al. Ethanomedicine based evalution of osteoprotective properties of Tinospora cordifolia on in-vitro and in-vivo model system. Biomed Pharmacother 2015;87:342-54.
3. Tijjani MB, Bello IA, Aliyu AB, Olurishe T, Maidawa SM, Habila JD, et al. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. rich. (Cochlospermaceae). Res J Med Plant 2009;3:16-22.
4. Okeke IN, Laxminarayan R, Bhutta ZA, Duse AG, Jenkins P, O’Brien TF, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part I: Recent trends and current status. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:481-93.
5. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Anonymous: In the Wealth of India: 1 Suppl Series (Raw Materials). New Delhi, India: National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 2007;2:211-3.
6. Ludas A, Indu S, Hinduja S, Nirmala AK, Rajalakshmi M. Antioxidant potential of polysaccharide isolated from methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem bark. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;11:447-51.
7. Ambasta SK, Kumari S, Sinha UK. Anticlastogenicity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extract against arsenic genotoxicity in Mus musculus bone marrow erythrocytes using micronucleus assay. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:260-4.
8. Upadhyay A, Kumar K, Kumar A, Mishra H. Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Hook. F. and Thoms. (Guduchi) validation of the ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:112.
9. Rout GR. Identification of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers ex Hook F. and Thomas using RAPD markers. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2006;61:118-22.
10. Patel SS, Shah RS, Goyal RK. Antihyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a poly herbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47:564-70.
11. Karpova EA, Voznyi YV, Dudukina TV, Tsvetkva IV. 4-Trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides as new substrates form revealing diseases connected with hereditary deficiency of lysosome glycosidases. Biochem Int 1991;24:1135-44.
12. Kapil A, Sharma S. Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethopharmacol 1997;58:89-95.
13. Lv J, Xu D, Perkovic V, Ma X, Johnson DW, Woodward M. Corticosteroid therapy in IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;23:1108-16.
14. Sundarraj S, Thangam R, Sreevani V, Kaveri K, Gunasekaran P, Achiraman S, et al. ?-Sitosterol from Acacia nilotica L. induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apopyosis through c-Myc suppression in MCF-7 and A549 cells. J Ethnopharmcol 2012;141:803-9.
15. Saxena SC, Yadav RS. A new plant extract to suppress the population of yellow fever and dengue vector Aedes aegyptii L. (Diphtera: Culicidae). Curr Sci 1983;52:713-5.
16. Marston A, Maillard M, Hostettmann K. GIT Lab J 1997;1:36-9.
17. Carr J, Rogers C. Chemosystematic studies of the genus Combretum (Combretaceae). I. A convenient method of identifying species of this genus by a comparison of the polar constituents extracted from leaf material. S Afr J Bot 1987;53:173-6.
18. Bajpai VK, Majumder R, Park JG. Isolation and purification of plant secondary metabolites using column-chromatographic technique. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2016;11:844.
19. Sinha A. Phyto-chemical studies of methanol extracts of Tinospora cordifolia stem by GC-MS. World J Pharm Res 2017;6:1319-26.
20. Karuppiah P, Rajaram S. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:597-601.
21. NCCLS Update. ???. Clin Microbiol News Lett 2002;24:188.
22. Duncan AJ. Charts of the 10. J Am Stat Assoc 1957;52:345.
23. Prasad N, Singh K, Gupta A, Prasad KN. Isolation of bacterial DNA followed by sequencing and differing cytokine response in peritoneal dialysis effluent help in identifying bacteria in culture negative peritonitis. Nephrology 2018;23:148-54.
24. Ferreira L, Dos Santos R, Oliva G, Andricopulo A. Molecular docking and structure-based drug design strategies. Molecules 2015;20:13384-421.
25. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 1999;86:985-90.
26. Nagampalli S, Ainapore SS, Nadkani PM. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Pharmacol 1982;14:64-6.
27. Sengupta S, Mukherjee A, Goswami R, Basu S. Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2009;24:684-90.
28. Chopra I, Roberts M. Tetracycline antibiotics: Mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2001;65:232-60.
29. Gabhan C, Gosia KK, Elizabeth H, Richard JR, Patrick B. Low minimum inhibitory concentration associated with the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C) in Escherichia coli. Can J Vet Res 2010;74:145-8.
30. Sivakumar V, Rajan MS. Standardization and characterization of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers ex HOOK. F. and Thoms. plant stem extract in different solvent fractions. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2011;1:105-12.
31. Pato ML. Tetracycline inhibits propagation of deoxyribonucleic acid replication and alters membrane properties. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1977;11:318-23.
32. Muthusamy J, Rajendran B, Vasudevan P. Ascertaining the mode of action of phytocompounds from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia using docking studies. J Pharm Sci Innov 2014;3:454-8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.