TERATOGENICITY TESTING OF SIDDHA FORMULATION OF NILAVEMBU KUDINEER ON ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EMBRYO

TERATOGENICITY TESTING OF SIDDHA FORMULATION NILAVEMBU KUDINEER

  • SHANMUGAPRIYA P Department of Nanju Maruthuvam, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • ELANSEKARAN S Department of Noi Naadal, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • RAMAMURTHY M Department of Noi Naadal, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • JEEVA GLADYS R Department of Research Methodology and Medical Statistics, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • SIVARAMAN D Centre for Laboratory Animal Technology and Research, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • CHRISTIAN GJ Department of Noi Naadal, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the teratogenic effect of Nilavembu Kudineer (NVK) by testing in zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio).


Methods: The study consisted of 30 embryos/culture plate/dose concentration containing a series of diluted decoction of NVK ranging from 10 μg to 640 μg/ml, and the embryo development was monitored at specific time points. The parameters such as developmental abnormality and adverse events were monitored at 24 hourly intervals for 96 h.


Results: The study results showed 100% hatching and survival of embryos with no significant abnormalities in the extension of study from 96 to 120 h post-fertilization examinations.


Conclusion: NVK did not have teratogenic potential on testing it in various concentrations on zebrafish embryos validating its safety during pregnancy.

Keywords: Nilavembu kudineer, Dengue, Herbal medicine, Pregnancy

References

1. Rajalakshmi P, Lavanya R, Brindha P. Process standardization studies on ganthaga rasayanam. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:118-28.
2. Guzman MG, Halstead SB, Artsob H, Buchy P, Farrar J, Gubler DJ, et al. Dengue: A continuing global threat. Nat Rev Microbiol 2010;8:S7-16.
3. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013;496:504-7.
4. Goh KT. Changing epidemiology of dengue in Singapore. Lancet 1995;346:1098.
5. Guha-Sapir D, Schimmer B. Dengue fever: New paradigms for a changing epidemiology. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2005;2:1.
6. Kariyawasam S, Senanayake H. Dengue infections during pregnancy: Case series from a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. J Infect Dev Ctries 2010;4:767-75.
7. Fernández R, Rodríguez T, Borbonet F, Vázquez S, Guzmán MG, Kouri G, et al. Study of the relationship dengue-pregnancy in a group of cuban-mothers. Rev Cubana Med Trop 1994;46:76-8.
8. Christiaens I, Zaragoza DB, Guilbert L, Robertson SA, Mitchell BF, Olson DM, et al. Inflammatory processes in preterm and term parturition. J Reprod Immunol 2008;79:50-7.
9. Howson CP, Kinney MV, Lawn JE, editors. March of Dimes, PMNCH, Save the Children, Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth. Geneva; World Health Organization: 2012.
10. Pouliot SH, Xiong X, Harville E, Paz-Soldan V, Tomashek KM, Breart G, et al. Maternal dengue and pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2010;65:107-18.
11. Carroll ID, Toovey S, Van Gompel A. Dengue fever and pregnancy a review and comment. Travel Med Infect Dis 2007;5:183-8.
12. Noble CG, Shi PY. Structural biology of dengue virus enzymes: Towards rational design of therapeutics. Antiviral Res 2012;96:115-26.
13. Mudaliyar KN, Utthamarayan KS. Thirattu SV. Directorate of Indian Medicine. 3rd ed. Chennai: Homeopathy Press; 2009. p. 294.
14. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) Test Guideline No. 236, (Guidelines For Testing Of Chemicals, Paris; 2013. Available from: https:// www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-236-fish-embryo-acute-toxicitytest_9789264203709-en. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 05].
15. Sukanda EY, Kurniati NF. Evaluation of teratogenicity effects of ethanolic extractsof binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia(ten) Steenis) in Wistar rat. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:422-6.
16. Mudaliyar KN. Siddha Maruthuvam Pothu. 7th ed. Chennai: Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy Press; 2007. p. 20.
17. Zon LI, Peterson RT. In vivo drug discovery in the zebrafish. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005;4:35-44.
18. Crawford AD, Esguerra CV, de Witte PA. Fishing for drugs from nature: Zebrafish as a technology platform for natural product discovery. Planta Med 2008;74:624-32.
19. Hozzein WH, Farooq M, Al-Malki AH, Wadena MA, Developmental effects of extracts produced by some newly isolated Actinobacteria on the heart of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Asian J Pharm pharmacol 2013;7:1680-5.
20. Romagosa CR, Cherry MR, David ES, Milton RR. Embryo-toxic and teratogeniceffects of Tinospora cordifolia leaves and bark extracts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2016;6:37-41.
21. David A, Pancharatna K. Effects of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in the embryonic development of zebrafish, Danio rerio. J Appl Toxicol 2009;29:597-602.
22. Cook JC, Jacobson CF, Gao F, Tassinari MS, Hurtt ME, DeSesso JM, et al. Analysis of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug literature for potential developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2003;68:5-26.
23. Chen YH, Chang CY, Wang YH, Wen CC, Chen YC, Hu SC, et al. Embryonic exposure to diclofenac disturbs actin organization and leads to myofibril misalignment. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2011;92:139-47.
24. Anbarasu K, Manisenthil KK, Ramachandran S. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of nilavembu kudineer choornam: A classical preparation used in the treatment of chikungunya fever. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:819-23.
25. Christian GJ, Subramanian M, Periyasami D, Manickavasakam K, Gunasekaran P, Sivasubramanian S. Protective effect of polyherbal siddha formulation-nilavembukudineer against common viral fevers including dengue a case-control approach. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:1656-60.
26. Kalaiarasi R, Jeeva Gladys R, Elangovan S, Soundararjan DK, Mubarak H, Kanakarajan A. A combination of nilavembu kudineer and Adathodai manapagu in the management of dengue fever. Int J Cur Res 2013;5:978-81.
Statistics
65 Views | 28 Downloads
How to Cite
SHANMUGAPRIYA P, ELANSEKARAN S, RAMAMURTHY M, JEEVA GLADYS R, SIVARAMAN D, and CHRISTIAN GJ. “TERATOGENICITY TESTING OF SIDDHA FORMULATION OF NILAVEMBU KUDINEER ON ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EMBRYO”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 8, July 2019, pp. 246-50, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/33664.
Section
Original Article(s)