HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF HIGH-RESISTANT STARCH ANALOG RICE THROUGH GLP-1 AND INSULIN OR HIGH-RESISTANT STARCH ANALOG RICE ATTENUATES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL THROUGH ENHANCEMENT OF GLP-1 AND INSULIN

  • HAIRRUDIN Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jember, Indonesia.
  • SOETJIPTO Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.
  • RETNO HANDAJANI Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This study was to investigate the effect of analog rice (AR) on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin serum levels, glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) expression, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level in diabetic rats.


Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats divided into the control group (n=10) and the experimental group. High-fat diet and streptozotocin were administered in experimental groups, which then divided into four equal groups (n=10, each) (negative control group, rice group, AR1 and AR2 group, given standard pellet, rice pellet, AR1 and AR2 pellet, respectively, for 6 weeks). GLP-1 and insulin serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of GLUT-2 and the number of pancreatic β-cells observed using an immunohistochemistry method.


Results: FBG levels in the AR1 and AR2 groups decreased, while the rice group remained. GLP-1 serum levels of the negative control and rice groups were not significantly different from the control group, while the AR1 and AR2 groups higher than the control group (p≤0.05). All the treatment groups had insulin serum levels significantly lower than control group (p≤0.05), except the AR1 group. The expression of GLUT-2 and the number of pancreatic β-cells in the treatment groups were less than the control group, but between treatment groups were not significantly different.


Conclusion: AR significantly effective in reducing FBG level in diabetic rats through stimulation of increased GLP-1 and insulin serum levels serum levels but AR did not affect on the expression of GLUT-2.

Keywords: Analog rice,, Resistant starch,, Glucagon-like peptide-1,, Insulin,, Glucose transporter-2,, β-cell.

References

1. Paneni F, Cosentino F. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Guide to Clinical Management. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
2. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas. 8th ed. International Diabetes Federation; 2017. Available from: http://www.diabetesatlas.org.
3. Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. IDF diabetes atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018;138:271-81.
4. Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th ed. Newyork: Mc Graw-Hill’s Education; 2018.
5. Tjay TH, dan Rahardja K. Obat-Obat Penting: Khasiat, Penggunaan dan Efek Sampingmya. 7th ed. Jakarta: Gramedia; 2015.
6. Ahola AJ, Forsblom C, Groop PH. Adherence to special diets and its association with meeting the nutrient recommendations in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 2018;55:843-51.
7. Bhosale A, Thangavelu PD. Effect of lifestyle modification in Type II diabetes mellitus individuals. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:381-3.
8. Codella R, Terruzzi I, Luzi L. Why should people with Type 1 diabetes exercise regularly? Acta Diabetol 2017;54:615-30.
9. Kalsi A, Singh S, Taneja N, Kukal S, Mani S. Current treatments for Type 2 diabetes, their side effects and possible complementary treatments. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:13-8.
10. Soong YY, Quek RY, Henry CJ. Glycemic potency of muffins made with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours: A comparative study between in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Nutr 2015;54:1281-5.
11. Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ. Preventive Nutrition: The Comphrehensip Guide for Health Provesionals. 5th ed. Switzerland: Humana Press; 2015.
12. Subagio A, Windrati WS. Pengaruh komposisi MOCAF (modified cassava flour) dan tepung beras pada karakteristik beras cerdas. Pangan 2012;21:29-38.
13. Srinivasan K, Viswanad B, Asrat L, Kaul CL, Ramarao P. Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: A model for Type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening. Pharmacol Res 2005;52:313-20.
14. Arumugam S, Natesan S. Hypoglycemic effects of Barleria noctiflora fractions on high fat fed with low dose streptozotocin induced Type 2 diabetes in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:193-200.
15. Bhat GA, Khan HA, Alhomida AS, Sharma P, Singh R, Paray BA, et al. GLP-I secretion in healthy and diabetic wistar rats in response to aqueous extract of Momordica charantia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018;18:162.
16. Fujii H, Iwase M, Ohkuma T, Ogata-Kaizu S, Ide H, Kikuchi Y, et al. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Fukuoka diabetes registry. Nutr J 2013;12:159.
17. Kassaian N, Feizi A, Aminorroaya A, Jafari P, Ebrahimi MT, Amini M, et al. The effects of probiotics and synbiotic supplementation on glucose and insulin metabolism in adults with prediabetes: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Acta Diabetol 2018;55:1019-28.
18. Vidrine K, Ye J, Martin RJ, McCutcheon KL, Raggio AM, Pelkman C, et al. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014;22:344-8.
19. Zaman SA, Sarbini SR. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic. Crit Rev Biotechnol 2016;36:578-84.
20. Firdaus J, Sulistyaningsih E, Subagio E. Research article resistant starch modified cassava flour (MOCAF) improves insulin resistance. Asian J Clin Nutr 2018;10:32-6.
21. Bodinham CL, Al-Mana NM, Smith L, Robertson MD. Endogenous plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 following acute dietary fibre consumption. Br J Nutr 2013;110:1429-33.
22. Ravassa S, Zudaire A, Díez J. GLP-1 and cardioprotection: From bench to bedside. Cardiovasc Res 2012;94:316-23.
23. D’Alessio D, Lu W, Sun W, Zheng S, Yang Q, Seeley R, et al. Fasting and postprandial concentrations of GLP-1 in intestinal lymph and portal plasma: Evidence for selective release of GLP-1 in the lymph system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007;293:R2163-9.
24. Ravassa S, Zudaire A, Carr RD, Díez J. Antiapoptotic effects of in murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011;300:H1361-72.
25. Lim S, Eckel RH. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2014;15:329-41.
26. Brockman DA, Chen X, Gallaher DD. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a viscous soluble fiber, reduces insulin resistance and decreases fatty liver in zucker diabetic fatty rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2012;9:100.
27. Deng J, Wu X, Bin S, Li TJ, Huang R, Liu Z, et al. Dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio and resistant starch content affects plasma glucose, lactic acid, hormone levels and protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2010;94:220-6.
28. Maki KC, Pelkman CL, Finocchiaro ET, Kelley KM, Lawless AL, Schild AL, et al. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men. J Nutr 2012;142:717-23.
29. Rodwell VW, Bender DA, Botham KM, Kennelly PJ, Weil PA. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 30th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.
Statistics
74 Views | 19 Downloads
How to Cite
HAIRRUDIN, SOETJIPTO, and RETNO HANDAJANI. “HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF HIGH-RESISTANT STARCH ANALOG RICE THROUGH GLP-1 AND INSULIN OR HIGH-RESISTANT STARCH ANALOG RICE ATTENUATES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL THROUGH ENHANCEMENT OF GLP-1 AND INSULIN”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 8, June 2019, pp. 172-5, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/33944.
Section
Original Article(s)