• RIVAN VIRLANDO SURYADINATA Doctoral Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • MERRYANA ADRIANI Department of Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • SANTI MARTINI Department of Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • SRI SUMARMI Department of Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • BAMBANG WIRJATMADI Department of Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.


Objective: E-cigarette products have resulted in various controversies concerning their posed impacts on health. Some argue that exposure to e-cigarette smoke could improve free radicals in the body; thus, it causes harming impacts on health. Peroral selenium (Se) administration can increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) serving as antioxidants in the body.

Methods: This research is an experimental study aiming to analyze the effectiveness of Se to decrease free radical due to exposure to e-cigarette smoke as one of the preventive actions. The research was carried out to male Wistar rats with exposure to e-cigarette smoke and peroral Se intake with different time and duration of administration.

Results: Research results showed a decrease of antioxidant SOD and GPx in the administration of exposure to e-cigarette smoke, and they gradually increased after Se administration (p=0.000). Meanwhile, the malondialdehyde level was inversely proportional compared to antioxidant SOD and GPx.

Conclusion: Se is a micronutrient that can reduce free radicals due to exposure to e-cigarette smoke through enhancement of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx.

Keywords: Selenium, Malondialdehyde, E-cigarette, Glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase


1. Canistro D, Vivarelli F, Cirillo S, Marquillas CB, Buschini A, Lazzaretti M, et al. E-cigarettes induce toxicological effects that can raise the cancer risk. Sci Rep 2017;7:2028.
2. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes: A scientific review. Circulation 2014;129:1972-86.
3. Vardavas CI, Anagnostopoulos N, Kougias M, Evangelopoulou V, Connolly GN, Behrakis PK, et al. Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest 2012;141:1400-6.
4. Polosa R, Caponnetto P, Morjaria JB, Papale G, Campagna D, Russo C, et al. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: A prospective 6-month pilot study. BMC Public Health 2011;11:786.
5. Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Adriani M. Efektivitaspenurunan malondialdehyde dengan kombinasi suplemen antioksidan superoxide dismutase melon dan gliadin akibat paparan rokok. Glob Med Heal Commun 2017;5:79-83.
6. Suryadinata RV. Effect of free radicals on inflammatory process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Amerta Nutr2018;2:317-24.
7. Raghavendra U, Rao A, D’souza J, Pai VR, Nair S, Kumar V, et al. Comparative estimation of salivary total antioxidant capacity in periodontal health and chronic periodontitis a pilot study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:523.
8. Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S. Lipid peroxidation: Production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014;2014:360438.
9. Mapunda PE, Mligo C, Lyaruu HV. Evaluation of free radical scavenging ability and antiradical activities of Ximenia caffra fruit extracts at different ripening stages. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019;11:55.
10. Pratiwi SR, Lorensia A, Suryadinata RV. Asupan Vitamin C dan E dengan SQ-FFQ terhadap fungsi paru perokok dan non-perokok. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indones 2018;14:101.
11. Subba A, Mandal P. Standardization of a traditional polyherbal formulation with pharmacognostic study; its phytochemical content, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:5.
12. Rahal A, Kumar A, Singh V, Yadav B, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, et al. Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: The interplay. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:761264.
13. Pratima H. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of alkaloid extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019;44-8.
14. Liguori I, Russo G, Curcio F, Bulli G, Aran L, Della-Morte D, et al. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clin Interv Aging 2018;13:757-72.
15. Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Adriani M. Pengaruh perubahan hiperplasia sel goblet selama 28 hari paparan asap rokok dengan pemberian antioksidan superoxide dismutase. Indones J Public Health 2017;11:60.
16. Lubos E, Loscalzo J, Handy DE. Glutathione peroxidase-1 in health and disease: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal 2011;15:1957-97.
17. Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: Properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem 2015;30:11-26.
18. Kim Y, Kim DC, Cho ES, Ko SO, Kwon WY, Suh GJ, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium in oral buccal mucosa and small intestinal mucosa during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Inflamm (Lond) 2014;11:36.
19. Socha K, Kochanowicz J, Karpi?ska E, Soroczy?ska J, Jakoniuk M, Mariak Z, et al. Dietary habits and selenium, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Nutr J 2014;13:62.
20. Bermingham EN, Hesketh JE, Sinclair BR, Koolaard JP, Roy NC. Selenium-enriched foods are more effective at increasing glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity compared with selenomethionine: A meta-analysis. Nutrients 2014;6:4002-31.
21. Mehdi Y, Hornick JL, Istasse L, Dufrasne I. Selenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in body functions. Molecules 2013;18:3292-311.
22. Cai X, Wang C, Yu W, Fan W, Wang S, Shen N, et al. Selenium exposure and cancer risk: An updated meta-analysis and meta-regression. Sci Rep 2016;6:19213.
23. Kim KS, Suh GJ, Kwon WY, Kwak YH, Lee K, Lee HJ, et al. Antioxidant effects of selenium on lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2012;50:749-53.
24. Younus H. Therapeutic potentials of superoxide dismutase. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018;12:88-93.
25. Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Adriani M, Sumarmi S. The effects of exposure duration to electronic cigarette smoke on differences in superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in blood of wistar rats. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:13-6.
26. Chidambararajan P, Keerthana V, Priyadharshini K, Sakthivel B. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of ulva lactucal l. Using MOLT-3 cell line. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:3-6.
27. Simioni C, Zauli G, Martelli AM, Vitale M, Sacchetti G, Gonelli A, et al. Oxidative stress: Role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging. Oncotarget 2018;9:17181-98.
28. Jing SL, Yen KP, Dash GK. In vitro antioxidant and photoprotective activities of Carica papaya fruits. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:2-4.
29. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4:118-26.
30. Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, Arcoraci V, et al. Oxidative stress: Harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:8416763.
31. Wang N, Tan HY, Li S, Xu Y, Guo W, Feng Y, et al. Supplementation of micronutrient selenium in metabolic diseases: Its role as an antioxidant. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:7478523.
160 Views | 58 Downloads
How to Cite
RIVAN VIRLANDO SURYADINATA, MERRYANA ADRIANI, SANTI MARTINI, SRI SUMARMI, and BAMBANG WIRJATMADI. “THE ROLE OF SELENIUM MICRONUTRIENTS AS ANTIOXIDANTS IN EXPOSURE TO E-CIGARETTE SMOKE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 8, July 2019, pp. 265-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i18.34454.
Original Article(s)