CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDOEXFOLIATION SYNDROME – A PROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

  • VIKRAM CHELLAKUMAR Department of Ophthalmology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • RASHMI PRIYANKA Department of Ophthalmology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • BALAKRISHNAN M Department of Ophthalmology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Objectives: In recent years, pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) is recognized as a systemic disorder and as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We studied the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases associated in patients with PXF.


Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study done over a period of 2 years from January 2017 to December 2018 at the Department of Ophthalmology in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. A total of 100 patients with PXF both male and female above the age of 50 were included in the study. They were given a standard questionnaire to evaluate common cyclic vomiting syndrome symptoms and a history of angina, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accident was noted. All patients underwent blood pressure (BP) measurement and electrocardiogram (ECG) recording.


Results: In our study which included 100 patients with PXF there were 57 male patients and 43 female patients. Most of the patients (59%) were above 65 years of age and 36 patients were diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma. A total of 62 patients had persistently elevated BP on three different occasions. Only five patients gave a positive history of angina at some point in their lives and among them, only four patients showed demonstrable changes in ECG. One patient gave a history of myocardial infarction (two showed changes in ECG) and none of the patients had cerebrovascular accidents.


Conclusion: Our study showed that more than 60% of patients with PXF had hypertension; however, a statistically significant association with other conditions was not noted.

Keywords: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, Arterial hypertension, Ischemic heart disease, Myocardial infarction, Glaucoma

References

1. Katsi V, Pavlidis AN, Kallistratos MS, Fitsios A, Bratsas A, Tousoulis D, et al. Cardiovascular repercussions of the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. N Am J Med Sci 2013;5:454-9.
2. French DD, Margo CE, Harman LE. Ocular pseudoexfoliation and cardiovascular disease: A national cross-section comparison study. N Am J Med Sci 2012;4:468-73.
3. Andrikopoulos GK, Alexopoulos DK, Gartaganis SP. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. World J Cardiol 2014;6:847-54.
4. Emiroglu MY, Coskun E, Karapinar H, Capk?n M, Kaya Z, Kaya H, et al. Is pseudoexfoliation syndrome associated with coronary artery disease? N Am J Med Sci 2010;2:487-90.
5. Shrum KR, Hattenhauer MG, Hodge D. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality associated with ocular pseudoexfoliation. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129:83-6.
6. Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Smith W. Association of pseudoexfoliation syndrome with increased vascular risk. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:685-7.
7. Gonen KA, Gonen T, Gumus B. Renal artery stenosis and abdominal aorta aneurysm in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Eye (Lond) 2013;27:735-41.
8. Lesiewska H, ?ukaszewska-Smyk A, Odrow??-Sypniewska G, Krintus M, Ma?kowska-Cyl A, Malukiewicz G. Chosen vascular risk markers in pseudoexfoliation syndrome: An age-related disorder. J Ophthalmol 2017;2017:5231095.
9. Cumurcu T, Dorak F, Cumurcu BE, Erbay LG, Ozsoy E. Is there any relation between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and alzheimer’s type dementia? Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28:224-9.
10. Papadopoulos TA, Charalabopoulou M, Vathylakis I, Goumas P, Gartaganis S, Naxakis S. Prevalence and severity of sensorineural hearing loss in patients with exfoliation syndrome. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16:902-7.
11. Schumacher S, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Martus P, Lang W, Naumann GO. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. Lancet 2001;357:359-60.
12. Demir N, Ulus T, Yucel OE, Kumral ET, Singar E, Tanboga HI. Assessment of myocardial ischaemia using tissue Doppler imaging in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Eye (Lond) 2011;25:1177-80.
13. Emiroglu MY, Coskun E, Karapinar H, Capk?n M, Kaya Z, Kaya H, et al. Is pseudoexfoliation syndrome associated with coronary artery disease? N Am J Med Sci 2010;2:487-90.
14. Praveen MR, Shah SK, Vasavada AR, Diwan RP, Shah SM,Zumkhawala BR, et al. Pseudoexfoliation as a risk factor for peripheral vascular disease: A case-control study. Eye (Lond) 2011;25:174-9.
15. Spe?kauskas M, Tamoši?nas A, Jašinskas V. Association of ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome with ischaemic heart disease, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Acta Ophthalmol 2012;90:e470-5.
16. Vardhan SA, Haripriya A, Ratukondla B, Ramulu P, Shivakumar C, Nath M, et al. Association of pseudoexfoliation with systemic vascular diseases in a South Indian population. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135:348-54.
17. Siordia JA, Franco J, Golden TR, Dar B. Ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome linkage to cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 2016;18:61.
18. Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Smith W. Association of pseudoexfoliation syndrome with increased vascular risk. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:685-7.
19. Ercegoviæ A, Brajkoviæ J, Suraæ IK, Haluzan MB. Prevalence, distribution and types of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery patients in Sibenik County. Acta Clin Croat 2012;51:275-8.
Statistics
198 Views | 139 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
CHELLAKUMAR, V., RASHMI PRIYANKA, and BALAKRISHNAN M. “CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDOEXFOLIATION SYNDROME – A PROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 1, Nov. 2019, pp. 21-23, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i1.36177.
Section
Original Article(s)