RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF LIGNIN EXTRACTED FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND ITS EFFECT ON GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE ENZYMES ACTIVITY
Objective: Lignin consists of cell wall phenylpropanoid polymers widespread in all vascular plants and is present in lignocellulosic waste such as oil
palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The presence of valuable compounds in OPEFB lignin such as vanillin, syringaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde
promise additional value to lignin especially in pharmaceutical and food supplement industries.
Methods: In this study, lignin was isolated from OPEFB using three types of extraction techniques (soda, kraft, and organosolv)and
characterized via calorimetric, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all three types of OPEFB lignin by
2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect was examined. OPEFB lignin extracts were therefore further investigated for their
influence on glutathione-S- transferase enzymes activity in rat liver cytosolic fractions using spectrophotometer assay.
Results: The kraft OPEFB lignin showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging effect compared to the other. High-performance liquid
chromatography analysis revealed that all OPEFB lignin were mainly formed by p-hydroxyphenyl (H) guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units whereas
vanillin and syringaldehyde were the main compounds in soda, kraft, and organosolv OPEFB lignin. Soda OPEFB lignin showed the most effective
inhibition of rat liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferases activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene followed by kraft OPEFB lignin.
Conclusion: This study found that the antioxidant activities of all three types of OPEFB lignin were related to the phenolic hydroxyl group (ArOH)
contents and their Mw, Mn, and Mw/Mn values. The effect of OPEFB lignin on the inhibition of GST enzymes activity shows good correlation with the
total flavonoid content of each OPEFB lignin.
Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch lignin, Antioxidant activity, Glutathione-S-transferase, Syringaldehyde, Vanillin.
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