RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF LIGNIN EXTRACTED FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND ITS EFFECT ON GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE ENZYMES ACTIVITY

Authors

  • Norliyana Mohd Salleh
  • Sabariah Ismail
  • Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim

Abstract

Objective: Lignin consists of cell wall phenylpropanoid polymers widespread in all vascular plants and is present in lignocellulosic waste such as oil
palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The presence of valuable compounds in OPEFB lignin such as vanillin, syringaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde
promise additional value to lignin especially in pharmaceutical and food supplement industries.
Methods: In this study, lignin was isolated from OPEFB using three types of extraction techniques (soda, kraft, and organosolv)and
characterized via calorimetric, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all three types of OPEFB lignin by
2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect was examined. OPEFB lignin extracts were therefore further investigated for their
influence on glutathione-S- transferase enzymes activity in rat liver cytosolic fractions using spectrophotometer assay.
Results: The kraft OPEFB lignin showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging effect compared to the other. High-performance liquid
chromatography analysis revealed that all OPEFB lignin were mainly formed by p-hydroxyphenyl (H) guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units whereas
vanillin and syringaldehyde were the main compounds in soda, kraft, and organosolv OPEFB lignin. Soda OPEFB lignin showed the most effective
inhibition of rat liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferases activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene followed by kraft OPEFB lignin.
Conclusion: This study found that the antioxidant activities of all three types of OPEFB lignin were related to the phenolic hydroxyl group (ArOH)
contents and their Mw, Mn, and Mw/Mn values. The effect of OPEFB lignin on the inhibition of GST enzymes activity shows good correlation with the
total flavonoid content of each OPEFB lignin.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch lignin, Antioxidant activity, Glutathione-S-transferase, Syringaldehyde, Vanillin.

References

Mohamed AR, Lee KT. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy. Energy Policy 2006;34:2388-97.

Chew TL, Bhatia S. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. Bioresour Technol 2008;99(17):7911-22.

Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Norliyana MS, Nor Nadiah MY, Azilawati MG. Keistimewaan Lignin Daripada Kelapa Sawit. Pulau Pinang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia; 2010.

Mitjans M, Vinardell MP. Biological activity and health benefits of lignans and lignins. Trends Comp Biochem Physiol 2005;11:55-62.

Schmidt JA, Rye CS, Gurnagul N. Lignin inhibits autoxidative degradation of cellulose. Polym Degrad Stab 1995;49:291-7.

Lu FJ, Chu LH, Gau RJ. Free radical-scavenging properties of lignin. Nutr Cancer 1998;30(1):31-8.

Satoh K, Kihara T, Ida Y, Sakagami H, Koyama N, Premanathan M, et al. Radical modulation activity of pine cone extracts of Pinus elliottii var. Elliottii. Anticancer Res 1999;19(1A):357-64.

Triboulot MC, Godard V, George B, Merlin A, Deglise X. Natural and after ageing stabilization of wood. In: Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp Advances in Lignocellulosics Chemistry Towards High Quality Processes and Products. France: Bordeaux; 2000. p. 139-42.

Barclay LR, Xi F, Norris JQ. Antioxidant properties of phenolics lignin model compounds. J Wood Chem Technol 1997;17:73-90.

Pan X, Kadla JF, Ehara K, Gilkes N, Saddler JN. Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: Relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(16):5806-13.

Dizhbite T, Telysheva G, Jurkjane V, Viesturs U. Characterization of the radical scavenging activity of lignins – Natural antioxidants. Bioresour Technol 2004;95(3):309-17.

Sakagami H, Kohno S, Takeda M, Nakamura K, Nomoto K, Ueno I, et al. O2- scavenging activity of lignins, tannins and PSK. Anticancer Res 1992;12(6B):1995-2000.

Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Nor Nadiah MY, Azian H. Comparison studies between soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin in terms of physico-chemical properties and structural features. J Appl Polym Sci 2006;6:292- 6.

Hayes JD, Pulford DJ. The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: Regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 1995;30(6):445-600.

Nordberg J, Arnér ES. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system. Free Radic Biol Med 200;31:1287- 312.

Montane D, Farriol X, Salvado J, Jollez P, Chornet E. Fractionation of wheat straw by steam-explosion pre-treatment and alkali delignification. Cellulose pulp and byproducts from hemicelluloses and lignin. J Wood Chem Technol 1998;18:171-91.

Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Chuah SB, Wan Rosli WD. Characterization of lignin precipitated from the soda black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers by various mineral acids. ASEAN 2004;2:57-67.

Granata A, Argyropoulos DS. 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane, a reagent for the accurate determination of the uncondensed and condensed phenolic moieties in lignins. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43(6):1538-44.

Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of the flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chem 2006;97:109-14.

Lin SY, Dence SW. Characterization in solution: Chemical degradation methods. In: Timell TE, editor. Methods in Lignin Chemistry. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1992. p. 301-19.

Gibson GG, Skett P. Techniques and experiments illustrating drug metabolism. 1st ed. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd.; 1986.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193(1):265-75.

Ogata M, Hoshi M, Shimotohno K, Urano S, Endo T. Antioxidant activity of magnolol, honokiol and related phenolic compounds. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1997;74:557-62.

Salanti A, Zoia L, Orlandi M, Zanini F, Elegir G. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation of lignins from rice husk. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(18):10049-55.

Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Zakaria N, Sipaut CS, Sulaiman O, Hashim R. Chemical and thermal properties of lignins from oil palm biomass as a substitute for phenol in a phenol formaldehyde resin production. Carbohydr Polym 2011;86:112-9.

El Mansouri N, Salvadó J. Structural characterization of technical lignins for the production of adhesives: Application to lignosulfonate, kraft, soda-anthraquinone, organosolv and ethanol process lignins. Ind Crops Prod 2006;24:8-16.

Hertog MG, Hollman PC, Venema DP. Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. J Agric Food Chem 1992;40:1591-8.

Soares JR, Dinis TC, Cunha AP, Almeida LM. Antioxidant activities of some extracts of Thymus zygis. Free Radic Res 1997;26(5):469-78.

Afandi A, Zulkiffli MH, Sadikun A, Ismail S. Antioxidant properties of Gynura procumbens extracts and their inhibitory effects on two major human recombinant cytochrome P450s using a high throughput luminescene assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:36-41.

Acharya K, Khatua S, Roy T. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extract from Russula laurocerasi. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:156-60.

Hussin MH, Abdul Rahim A, Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Brosse N. Physicochemical characterization of alkaline and ethanol organosolv lignins from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fronds as phenol substitutes for green material applications. Ind Crops Prod 2013;49:23-32.

Goodner KL, Jella P, Rouseff RL. Determination of vanillin in orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lemon, and lime juices using GC-olfactometry and GC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(7):2882-6.

Pommier Y, Macdonald TL, Madalengoitia, JS. Topoisomerase inhibitors and therapeutic uses therefor. International Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). WO1994010175, 1994.

Cushman MS, Hamel E. Stilbene derivatives as anticancer agents. International Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). WO93/23357, 1993.

Ghazali RA, Waring RH. Effects of flavonoids on glutathione-S-transferase in human blood platelets, rat liver, rat kidney and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell-lines: Potential in drug metabolism and chemoprevention. Med Sci Res 1999;27:449-51.

Juzaili A, Ismail S, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Mohd Said MI, Mansor SM. In vitro and in vivo effects of 3 different Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaf extracts on phase II drug metabolizing enzymes glutathione transferase (GSTs). Molecules 2010;15:432-41.

Published

2015-05-01

How to Cite

Mohd Salleh, N., S. Ismail, and M. N. Mohamad Ibrahim. “RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF LIGNIN EXTRACTED FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND ITS EFFECT ON GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE ENZYMES ACTIVITY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, May 2015, pp. 81-87, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/3622.

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)