EFFECT OF PRODIGIOSIN FROM SERRATIA MARCESCENS BR1 STRAIN AS AN ANTIOXIDATIVE, ANTIMICROBIAL, AND IN VIVO WOUND HEALING
Objective: The aim of this work is to evaluate antioxidative, antimicrobial, and healing wound potential of prodigiosin extracted from Serratia marcescens strain microbiota of a traditional Algerian fermented cereal food. The goal is to develop a natural galenic formulation for external use.
Methods: After extraction and purification of the red pigment, the Fourier transform infrared spectrum is determined. The antioxidative activity was performed by scavenging radical with 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), bleaching of beta-carotene, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Antimicrobial tests were assessed against bacteria and fungi pathogenic reference strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 10541, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Staphylococcus aureus CC 10541, Helicobacter pylori, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Healing wound activity was achieved in vivo on Wistar rats using as a reference to the commercial formulation Madécasol.
Results: S. marcescens BR1 produce a prodigiosin where IR spectrum is typical. The DPPH test shows a trapping power of 80% at 1 mg/ml and an inhibitory concentration 50 equal to 0.54 mg/ml. The discoloration of β-carotene is 50% with high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Candida albicans were the most sensitive to prodigiosin with inhibition diameters >20 mm. All strains tested are sensitive to prodigiosin. C. albicans were the most sensitive with inhibition diameters >20 mm followed by H. pylori strain (15 mm) and E. coli (13.5 mm). Prodigiosin ointment at 0.1% in Vaseline was used to achieve in vivo healing activity. Obtained results showed a fast and effective wound healing potential, better than the standard (Madécasol). The cicatrization traces totally without any of the lesions. We discovered the absence of the redness phase. This formulation, based on prodigiosin, is very promising as a natural replacement for the synthetic drug, having powerful anti-microbial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activities.
2. Sumathi C, Priya DM, Swarnalatha S, Dinesh MG, Sekaran G. Production of prodigiosin using tannery fleshing and evaluating its pharmacological effects. ScientificWorldJournal 2014;2014:290327.
3. Logeeswari K, Shubashini KS. Wound healing medicinal plants: A review. Int J Chem Environ Pharm Res 2012;39:199-218.
4. Lauro GJ. A primer on natural colours. Cereal Foods World 1991;36:949-53.
5. Chidambaram KV, Perumalsamy LP. An insightful overview on microbial pigment, prodigiosin. Electron J Biol 2009;5:49-61.
6. Raisainen R, Nousiainen P, Hynninen PH. Dermorubin and 5-chlorodermorubin. Natural anthraquinone carboxylic acids as dyes for wool. Textile Res J 2002;72:973-6.
7. Cang S, Sanada M, Johdo O, Ohta S, Nagamatsu Y, Yoshimoto A. High production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens grown on ethanol. Biotechnol Lett 2000;22:1761-5.
8. Furstner A. Chemistry and biology of roseophilin and the prodigiosin alkaloids: A survey of the last 2500 years. Chem Int Ed Engl 2003;42:3582-603.
9. Rémi P. Vers la synthèse d’analogues de la Prodigiosine. Synthèse de 2,2-bipyrroles Dissymétriques. France: Thèse Docteur de L’Université de Grenoble; 2006.
10. Eric J, Kalivoda NA, Stella MA, Aston JE, Fender PP, Thompson R. Cyclic AMP negatively regulates prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens. Res Microbiol 2010;161:158-67.
11. Ramani D, Nair A, Krithika K. Optimization of cultural conditions for the production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcesens and screening for the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin. Int J Pharmacol Biol Sci 2014;5:383-92.
12. Namazkar S, Garg R, Ahmad WZ, Nordin N. Production and characterization of crude and encapsulated prodigiosin pigment. Int J Chem Sci Appl 2013;3:116-29.
13. Bharmal H, Jahagirdar N, Arun K. Study on optimization of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens MSK1 isolated from air. Int J Adv Biotech Res 2012;2:671-80.
14. Bertoncelj J, Doberšek U, Jamnik M, Golob T. Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey. Food Chem 2007;105:822-8.
15. Athamena S, Chalghem I, Kassah-Laouar A, Laroui S, Khebri S. Activité antioxydante, anti-inflammatoire et antimicrobienne d’extraits de Cuminum cyminum. Leban Sci J 2010;11:69-81.
16. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reactions: Antioxidative activities of product of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japan J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.
17. Darah I, Nazari TF, Kassim J, Lim SH. Prodigiosin-an antibacterial red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens IBRL USM 84 associated with a marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. J Appl Pharm Sci 2014;4:1-6.
18. Mosquera OM, Yaned MC, Jaime N. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts from Colombian flora. Braz J Pharmacogn 2009;19:382-7.
19. Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K, et al. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: Results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat Res 2002;519:103-9.
20. Szabo MR, Iditoiu C, Chambre D, Lupea AX. Improved DPPH determination for antioxidant activity spectrophotometric assay. Chem Pap 2007;61:214-6.
21. Sala A, Recio M, Giner RM, Manez S, Tournier H, Schinella G, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Helichrysum italicum. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54:365-71.
22. Conforti F, Sosa S, Marrelli M, Menichini F, Giancarlo AS, Uzunov D, et al. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:144-51.
23. Shimizu N, Watanabe T, Arakawa T, Fujiwara Y, Higuchi K, Kuroki T. Pentoxifylline accelerates gastric ulcer healing in rats: Roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha and neutrophils during the early phase of ulcer healing. Digestion 2000;61:157-64.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.