PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF AILANTHUS EXCELSA ROXB. BARK
Objective: The present investigation aims at detail pharmacognostic study of the bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (BAE). A. excelsa is an important plant in Indian system of medicine belonging to the family Simaroubaceae.
Methods: BAE was studied for various pharmacognostic evaluation parameters such as examination of morphological and microscopic characters and physicochemical evaluation. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent spectrophotometrically and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g).
Results: The morphological studies revealed that BAE is yellowish-brown in color with a smooth texture and characteristic odor. Microscopical studies indicated the presence of cork, cortex with a group of stone cells in BAE with secondary phloem region. Prismatic and acicular raphides calcium oxalate crystals were observed. The total ash value of BAE was found to be 8.95%. Bark powder was successively extracted in Soxhlet extractor using solvents from low polarity to high polarity such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, and flavonoids are present when the preliminary phytochemical investigation was done. The total phenolic content in BAE was found to be 9.95 mg GAE/g.
Conclusion: The results obtained from the study provide information for proper identification and standardization of plant.
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