• FATMA ALY AHMED Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
  • TAHA A. I. EL-BASSOSSY Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.


Objective: The objective of this study is to isolate and evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activity of the methanolic constituents of Forsskaolea viridis.

Methods: The isolation and purification of phytochemical constituents were performed in the present study using various chromatographic methods (thin-layer [TLC], preparative paper [PPC], and column chromatography [CC]) where, the structures of isolated compounds were determined using different spectroscopic methods (Mass spectroscopy [Ms], ultraviolet [UV], proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance [1H-NMR and 13C-NMR]) and confirmed by data reported in the literature. The biological activity of the methanolic extract was performed as in vitro studies by diffusion agar technique, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activity, respectively.

Results: The chemical studies led to the isolation of five flavonoids and two phenolic compounds for the first time from this plant. The methanolic extract exhibited potent antimicrobial activity (13–26 mm) against some of the tested strains while it showed fair antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results that the methanolic extract of F. viridis has potential antimicrobial activity while fair antioxidant and antitumor activity.

Keywords: Forsskaolea viridis, Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antitumor


1. Changkyun K, Tao D, Mark C, Dai-Gui Z, Ze-Long N, Hang S. Generic phylogeny and character evolution in Urticeae (Urticaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA regions. Taxon 2015;64:65-78.
2. Alfarhan AH, Al-Turk TA, Basahy AY. Flora of Jizan Region. Final Report. Vol. 1. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology; 2005.
3. Darias V, Bravo L, Barquin E, Martin Herrera D, Fraile C. Contribution to the ethnopharmacological study of the Canary Islands. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;15:169-93.
4. Darias V, Martín-Herrera D, Abdala S, Fuente D. Plants used in urinary pathologies in the Canary Islands. Pharm Biol 2001;39:170-80.
5. GBIF Secretariat: GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Available from: http:// [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 09].
6. Ahmed FA, El-Mesallamy AM, El-Bassossy TA. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of Forsskaolea viridis aerial parts. Acta Pol Pharm 2019;76:815-23.
7. CLSI, Method for Antifungal Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts, Approved Guideline. CLSI Document M44-A. CLSI, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898, USA; 2004.
8. CLSI, Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, Approved Standard, 7th ed., CLSI document M02-A11. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA; 2012.
9. Letelier ME, Molina-Berríos A, Cortés-Troncoso J, Jara-Sandoval J, Holst M, Palma K, et al. DPPH and oxygen free radicals as pro-oxidant of biomolecules. Toxicol In vitro 2008;22:279-86.
10. Joyeux M, Lobstein A, Anton R, Mortier F. Comparative antilipoperoxidant, antinecrotic and scavenging properties of terpenes and biflavones from Ginkgo and some flavonoids. Planta Med 1995;61:126-9.
11. Viturro C, Molina A, Schmeda-Hirschmann G. Free radical scavengers from Mutisia friesiana (Asteraceae) and Sanicula graveolens (Apiaceae). Phytother Res 1999;13:422-4.
12. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.
13. Wei XH, Yang SJ, Liang N, Hu DY, Jin LH, Xue W, et al. Chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston. Molecules 2013;18:1325-36.
14. Erel SB, Karaalp C, Bedir E, Kaehlig H, Glasl S, Khan S, et al. Secondary metabolites of Centaurea calolepis and evaluation of cnicin for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities. Pharm Biol 2011;49:840-9.
15. Berregi I, Ignacio JS, Campoa G, Ignacio JM, Aizpurua JM. Quantitation determination of chlorogenic acid in cider apple juices by 1H NMR spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 2003;486:269-74.
16. Lee JH, Park KH, Lee MH, Kim HT, Seo WD, Kim JY, et al. Identification, characterisation, and quantification of phenolic compounds in the antioxidant activity-containing fraction from the seeds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars. Food Chem 2013;136:843-52.
17. Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB. The Systematic Identification of Flavonoids. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1970.
18. Luzzatto T, Golan A, Yishay M, Bilkis I, Ben-Ari J, Yedidia I. Priming of antimicrobial phenolics during induced resistance response towards Pectobacterium carotovorum in the ornamental monocot calla lily. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:10315-22.
19. Han S, Mok Y, Kim H, Lee J, Lee D, Lee Y. Determination of hesperidin in mixed tea by HPLC. CNU J Agric Sci 2011;38:295-9.
20. Nawwar MA, Hussein SA, Merfort I. NMR spectral analysis of polyphenols from Punica granatum. Phytochemistry 1994;36:793-8.
21. Brown DG, Lister T, May-Dracka TL. New natural products as new leads for antibacterial drug discovery. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014;24:413-8.
22. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod 2012;75:311-35.
23. Menichetti F. Current and emerging serious Gram-positive infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 2005;11 Suppl 3:22-8.
24. Savitha T, Arivukkarasu R. Determination of phytocompounds from Terminalia chebula retz by HPTLC desnsitometric methods. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:516-20.
25. Dzoyem JP, Hamamoto H, Ngameni B, Ngadjui BT, Sekimizu K. Antimicrobial action mechanism of flavonoids from Dorstenia species. Drug Discov Ther 2013;7:66-72.
26. Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2011;38:99-107.
27. Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier-Willi G, Kok FJ, Rice-Evans C, Roberfroid M, et al. Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species. Br J Nutr 1998;80 Suppl 1:S77-112.
28. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44-84.
29. El-Mesallamy AM, Ahmed FA, El-Bassossy TA. Chemical Investigation of flavonoids, phenolic acids and Vitamins compositions of Forsskaolea viridis aerial parts. Egypt J Chem 2019;62:1815-22.
30. Viswanathswamy AH, Yadala P. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of rutin and piperine and their synergisitic effect. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:78-82.
31. Lü JM, Lin PH, Yao Q, Chen C. Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: Experimental approaches and model systems. J Cell Mol Med 2010;14:840-60.
32. Wang X, Ouyang YY, Liu J, Zhao G. Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr 2014;111:1-11.
33. Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoid antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:572-84.
34. Pandey AK, Mishra AK, Mishra A. Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2012;58:142-7.
35. Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: Structure-activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;22:749-60.
36. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;20:933-56.
37. Duthie GG, Duthie SJ, Kyle JA. Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: Implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev 2000;13:79-106.
38. Ren W, Qiao Z, Wang H, Zhu L, Zhang L. Flavonoids: Promising anticancer agents. Med Res Rev 2003;23:519-34.
39. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: An overview. J Nutr Sci 2016;5:e47.
48 Views | 62 Downloads
How to Cite
ALY AHMED, F., and T. A. I. EL-BASSOSSY. “ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FORSSKAOLEA VIRIDIS AERIAL PARTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 3, Jan. 2020, pp. 40-46, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i3.36503.
Original Article(s)