CHEMOTYPIC OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. ESSENTIAL OILS FROM EASTERN SIDE OF IRAQ
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize chemical constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils from Diyala Province, an eastern side of Iraq.
Methods: Following hydrodistillation extraction of the leaves, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (MS) was performed. Eighteen peaks were identified and compared to known compounds and MS patterns.
Results: The two major components identified were eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) and L-camphor, and they represent 59% and 29%, respectively. In addition, α-terpineol, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, and β-terpineol were detected in 3.75, 2.83, 1.96, 1.22, and 0.65%, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study showed that rosemary essential oils from Diyala Province of Iraq consisted mostly of oxygenated monoterpenes (>96%) and hydrocarbon monoterpenes are less than 1%. The latter suggest that hydrocarbon monoterpenes may undergo transformation due to atmospheric as well as microbiological metabolism which more studies are needed to confirm such suggestion.
2. Andrade JM, Faustino C, Garcia C, Ladeiras D, Reis CP, Rijo P. Rosmarinus officinalis L.: An update review of its phytochemistry and biological activity. Future Sci OA 2018;4:FSO283.
3. Nieto G, Ros G, Castillo J. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A review. Medicines (Basel) 2018;5:98.
4. Yu N, Sun YT, Su XM, He M, Dai B, Kang J. Treatment with eucalyptol mitigates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury through suppressing ICAM-1 gene expression. Biosci Rep 2018;38:BSR20171636.
5. Ozcan MM, Chalchat JC. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2008;59:691-8.
6. Satyal P, Jones TH, Lopez EM, McFeeters RL, Ali NA, Mansi I, et al. Chemotypic characterization and biological activity of Rosmarinus officinalis. Foods 2017;6:E20.
7. Yildirm D. The effect of seasonal variation on Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oil composition. Int J Agric Wildlife Sci 2018;4:33-8.
8. Jawad AM, Allawi AK, Ewadh HM. Essential oils of rosemary as antimicrobial agent against three types of bacteria. Med J Babylon 2018;15:53-6.
9. Tawfeeq AA, Mahdi MF, Abaas IS, Alwan AH. Isolation, quantification, and identification of rosmarinic acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of essential oil, cytotoxic effect, and antimicrobial investigation of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:126-32.
10. Elyemni M, Louaste B, Nechad I, Elkamli T, Bouia A, Taleb M, et al. Extraction of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. by two different methods: Hydrodistillation and microwave assisted hydrodistillation. ScientificWorldJournal 2019;2019:3659432.
11. Waithaka PN, Gathuru EM, Githaiga BM, Kimani SN. Control of passion fruit fungal diseases using essential oils extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in egerton university main campus Njoro, Kenya. Int J Microbiol 2017;2017:2814581.
12. Boutekedjiret C, Bentahar F, Belabbes R, Bessiere JM. The essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Algeria. J Essential Oil Res 1998;6:680-2.
13. Domokos J, Hethelyi E, Palinkas J, Szirmai S, Tulok MH. Essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) of hungarian origin. J Essent Oil Res 1997;9:41-5.
14. Elansary HO, Abdelgaleil SAM, Mahmoud EA, Yessoufou K, Elhindi K, El-Hendawy S. Effective antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of essential oils of horticultural aromatic crops in northern Egypt. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018;18:214.
15. Hcini K, Sotomayor JA, Jordan S, Bouzid S. Chemical composition of the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) of tunisian origin. Asian J Chem 2013;25:2601-3.
16. Diab Y, Auezova L, Chebib H, Chalchat JC, Figueredo G. Chemical composition of lebanese rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil as a function of the geographical region and the harvest time. J Essent Oil Res 2002;14:449-52.
17. Chalchat JC, Garry RP, Michet A, Benjilali B, Chabart JL. Essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The chemical composition of oils of various origins (Morocco, Spain, France). J Essent Oil Res 2011;25:613-8.
18. Djebir S, Ksouri S, Trigui M, Tounsi S, Boumaaza A, Hadef Y, et al. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils of some plant species of Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae against the vector of tropical bovine theileriosis: Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum). Biomed Res Int 2019;2019:7805467.
19. Salido S, Altarejos J, Nogueras M, Sanchez A, Lugue P. Chemical composition and seasonal variations of rosemary oil from southern Spain. J Essen Oil Res 2003;15:10-14.
20. Haida S, Essadik FZ, Kribii A, Habsaoui A, Ounine K, Benmoumen A, et al. Study of chemical composition of rosemary essential oil from western Morocco and evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of its extracts. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:303-23.
21. Marmulla R, Harder J. Microbial monoterpene transformations-a review. Front Microbiol 2014;5:346.
22. Wright SJ, Caunt P, Carter D, Baker PB. Microbial oxidation of a-pinene by Serratia marcescens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1986;23:224-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.