EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF LATEX OF CARICACEAE (CARICA PAPAYA L.)
Objective: Carica papaya Linn. belonging to the family of Caricaceae is a well-known fruit and medicinal plant that has been widely used for a
long time to cure various types of infectious disease especially in South Asian countries. The current study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial
properties of crude latex of C. papaya.
Methods: The screening of antibacterial activity of latex was evaluated against one Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative
pathogenic bacterial strains as Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium sp and Rhizobium sp. Ciprofloxacin was used as a control for investigating the bacterial species.
Antibacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone inhibition. Latex of this plant was tested in seven doses (1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 mg/disk)
and it was found that the antibacterial activity was dose dependent and a significant difference was also observed in case of different bacterial stains.
Results: The results demonstrated noticeable inhibition of the bacterial growth against the tested organisms. In case of Agrobacterium sp. 20 mg of
latex showed the average of 20.66 mm zone of inhibition and for E. coli this value was 16 mm for the same concentration of latex. The rest of the two
bacterial species showed comparative resistance to papaya latex.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the latex of C. papaya probably contains some valuable antibacterial compounds that are crucial forinhibiting
the growth of a wide variety of bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria and suggesting this for applying the treatment of a variety of bacterial
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Bacteria, Escherichia coli, Carica papaya, Disk diffusion, Latex. Zoon inhibition.
2. Zy EA, Area A, Aam K. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant extracts in Palestine. Pak J Med Sci 2005;21:187-93.
3. Hancock RE, Nijnik A, Philpott DJ. Modulating immunity as a therapy for bacterial infections. Nat Rev Microbiol 2012;10(4):243-54.
4. Nascimento GG, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic resistant bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2000;31:247-56.
5. Latha SP, Kannabiran K. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals of Solanum trinobatum linn. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5(23):2402-4.
6. Zhang X. Traditional medicine: Its importance and protection. In: Twarog S, Kapoor P, editors. Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems, National Experiences and International Dimensions. Part 1. The Role of Traditional Knowledge in Healthcare and Agriculture. New York: Aristolochia Contorta United Nations; 2004. p. 3-6.
7. van der Watt E, Pretorius JC. Purification and identification of active antibacterial components in Carpobrotus edulis L. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:87-91.
8. Dionisi HM, Lozada M, Olivera NL. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: Leads. Pure Appl Chem 2012;77:7-24.
9. Dubey NK, Kumar R, Tripathi P. Global promotion of herbal medicines: Indiaâ€™s opportunity. Curr Sci 2004;86:37-41.
10. Runyoro DK, Matee MI, Ngassapa OD, Joseph CC, Mbwambo ZH. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:11.
11. Hasan A, Khan MA, Ahmad M. Authenticity of folk medicinal plants of Pakistan. Taxonomic Chemical Methods. Vol. 1. Islamabad: Quaid i Azam University; 2007. p. 1-5.
12. Mukherjee TK. Protection of Indian traditional knowledge. In: Trivedi PC, Sharma NK, editors. Proceedings Etnomed Plant; 2004. p. 18-33.
13. Hussain A, Zaman MK, Ramteke AM. Antibacterial activity of trunk bark of Alstonia scholaris. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3(4):46-7.
14. Inbaraj SD, Menezes G, Josephine G, Muniappan M, Muthiah NS. Antibacterial effect of Lantana camara linn. on gram negative bacteria and ndm-1 strain: An in vitro study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7(2):9-12.
15. Rani KT, Sundar SK, Vijayalakshmi Amma B. GCMS analysis and antibacterial activity of Myristica fragrans seed extracts against lower respiratory tract pathogen Acinetobacter baumanii. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7(3):126-9.
16. Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Jagruti AP. Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Nat Prod Rad 2008;7(4):364-73.
17. Sofowora A. Research on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. J Altern Complement Med 1996;2(3):365-72.
18. Fischer N. Flavour components in selected exotic fruits. Food Aust 1998;50:165-8.19. Nkuo-Akenji T, Ndip R, McThomas A, Fru EC. Anti-Salmonella activity of medicinal plants from Cameroon. Cent Afr J Med 2001;47(6):155-8.
20. Leite AA, Nardi RM, Nicoli JR, Chartone-Souza E, Nascimento AM. Carica papaya seed macerate as inhibitor of conjugative R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. J Gen Appl Microbiol 2005;51(1):21-6.
21. Gill LS. Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: Uniben Press; 1992. p. 176-7.
22. Giordani R, Siepaio M, Moulin-Traffort J, RÃ©gli P. Antifungal action of Carica papaya latex: Isolation of fungal cell wall hydrolysing enzymes. Mycoses 1991;34(11-12):469-77.
23. Burkill IH. The chemistry and biochemistry of papaya. Tropical Foods. Vol. I. New York: Academic Press; 1966. p. 19-27.
24. Oke JM. Antidiabetic potency of pawpaw. Afr J Biomed Res 1998;1:31â€‘4.
25. Fajimi AK, Taiwo AA, Ayodeji H, Adebowale EA, Ogundola FI. Therapeutic trials on gastrointestinal helminth parasites of goat busing pawpaw seeds as a dench. Proceeding of the International Conference on Sustainable Crop, Livestock Production for Improved Livelihood and Natural Resource Management, West Africa, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; 2001.
26. Stepek G, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Lowe A, Behnke JM. Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro. Parasitology 2005;130:203-11.
27. Kurian JC. Plants that Heal. 2nd ed, Vol. 37. India: Oriental Watchman Publishing House Pune; 2001. p. 264-300.
28. Rakhimov MR. Pharmacological study of papain from the papaya plant cultivated in Uzbekistan. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000;63(3):55-7.
29. Kermanshai R, McCarry BE, Rosenfeld J, Summers PS, Weretilnyk EA, Sorger GJ. Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts. Phytochemistry 2001;57(3):427-35.
30. Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlietinck AJ. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61(1):57-65.
31. Calzada F, YÃ©pez-Mulia L, Tapia-Contreras A. Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;113(2):248-51.
32. Ghosh NK, Babu SP, Sukul NC. Antifilarial effect of a plant Carica papaya. Jpn J Trop Med Hyg 1998;26(2):117-9.
33. Valadeau C, Pabon A, Deharo E, AlbÃ¡n-Castillo J, Estevez Y, Lores FA, et al. Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): Evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123(3):413-22.
34. Wimalawansa SJ. Papaya in the treatment of chronic infected ulcers. Ceylon Med J 1981;26(3):129-32.
35. Owoyele BV, Adebukola OM, Funmilayo AA, Soladoye AO. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves. Inflammopharmacology 2008;16(4):168-73.
36. Eno AE, Owo OI, Itam EH, Konya RS. Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat. Phytother Res 2000;14(4):235-9.
37. Banerjee A. Vaghasiya R, Shrivastava N, Podn H, Nivsarkas M. Anti-hyperlipidemic affect of Carica papaya L. in sprague dawley rats. Nig J Nat Prod Med 2006;10:69-72.
38. Murcia MA, JimÃ©nez AM, MartÃnez-TomÃ© M. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean and tropical fruits compared with common food additives. J Food Prot 2001;64(12):2037-46.
39. Gbolade AA. Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;121(1):135-9.
40. Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;127(3):760-7.
41. Tang CS, Syed MM, Hamilton RA. Benzyl isothiocyanate in the Caricaceae. Phytochemistry 1972;11:2531-3.
42. Emeruwa AC. Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract. J Nat Prod 1982;45(2):123-7.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.