• SARAVANAKUMAR K Department of Pharmaceutics, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A. Rangampet, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • RADHIKA CHIKATIPALLI Research Scholar, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Ananthapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • CHANDRA SEKHAR KOTHAPALLI BONNOTH Department of Chemistry, Krishna University, Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Objective: Evaluation of anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski aerial parts in albino Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: A. roxburghianus dried aerial parts were extracted with ethyl alcohol: water (70:30) ratio, respectively, by the hot Soxhlet method. Hydroalcoholic A. roxburghianus extract (HARE) was further concentrated to obtain a semisolid residue. Two doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of HARE were tested against formaldehyde-induced acute non-immunological and Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino Wistar rats. Arthritis assessment was done by morphological studies (paw volume, paw diameter, and body wt.) and hematological parameters radiological, histopathological, and organ wt. studies were also done on the 28th day after animals were sacrificed.

Results: Dose-dependent and significant inhibition of edema were observed in both acute as well as chronic models. The extract at dose 400 mg/kg showed most potent and significant (p<0.05) paw edema inhibition which is supported by the results of paw volume and diameter, hematological parameters, in FCA-induced arthritis model. Treatment with HARE also decreased the histopathological alterations induced by FCA model.

Conclusion: HARE protects synovial membrane by improving the health status exhibits promising anti-arthritic activity. This finding thus supports the traditional use of A. roxburghianus for arthritis. However, further studies are needed to carry out the isolation of active constituents of the fraction responsible for the activity.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, Nil, formaldehyde-induced arthritis, morphological, haematological, radiological, histopathological and organ wt. studies


1. Harris ED. Rheumatoid arthritis. Pathophysiology and implications for therapy. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1277-89.
2. Boissier MC. Rheumatoid arthritis: Direct and indirect costs. Joint Bone Spine 2004;71:518-24.
3. Chaudhary BR. Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Am Coll Rheumatol Subcomm Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:328-46.
4. Ahmed S, Anuntiyo J, Charles J, Haqqi TM. Biological basis for the use of botanicals in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: A review. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2005;2:301-8.
5. Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL. Goodman & Gilman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw- Hill; 2006.
6. Feldmann M, Steinman L. Design of effective immunotherapy for human autoimmunity. Nature 2005;435:612-9.
7. Arend WP, Dyer JM. Inhibition of the production and effects of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:151-60.
8. Feldmann M, Maini RN. Anti-TNF alpha therapy of rheumatoid arthritis: What have we learned? Annu Rev Immunol 2001;19:163-96.
9. Chitme HR, Patel NP. Antiarthritis activity of aristolochia bracteata extract in experimental animals. Open Nat Prod J 2009;2:6-15.
10. Baghai M, Osmon DR, Wolk DM, Wold LE, Haidukewych GJ, Matteson EL. Fatal sepsis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with etanercept. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:653-6.
11. Engel LW, Straus SE. Development of therapeutics: Opportunities within complementary and alternative medicine. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002;1:229-37.
12. Jacobs JW, Rasker JJ, Bijlsma JW. Alternative medicine in rheumatology: Threat or challenge? Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001;19:117-9.
13. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994. p. 107-11.
14. Lam FF, Wong HH, Ethel SK. Time course and substance P effects on the vascular and morphological changes in adjuvant-induced monoarthritic rats. Int Immunopharmacol 2004;4:299-310.
15. Butler SH, Godefroy F, Besson JM, Weil-Fugazza J. A limited arthritic model for chronic pain studies in the rat. Pain 1992;48:73-81.
16. Kauthale V, Kulkarni D, Chavan L, Patil S, Nalawade A. Diversity of wild edible plants in Dhadgaon block of Nandurbar District in Maharashtra, India. Int J Curr Res Biosci Plant Biol 2017;4:62-73.
17. Vedavathy S, Sudhakar A, Mrdula V. Tribal medicinal plants of Chittoor. Anc Sci Life 1997;16:307-31.
18. Mary AD, Franco FM, Babu V. Assessing the contribution of local and traded biodiversity in community health care: A case study from Keelakodankulam Village, South India. Ethnobot Res Appl 2011;9:275-86.
19. Alves De Almeida AC, De-Faria FM, Dunder RJ, Manzo LP, Souza-Brito AR, Luiz-Ferreira A. Recent trends in pharmacological activity of alkaloids in animal colitis: Potential use for inflammatory bowel disease. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2017;2017:1-24.
20. Nirmal SA, Ingale JM, Pattan SR, Bhawar SB. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. J Integr Med 2013;11:206-12.
21. Available from: publications%20in%20ayurvedic%20sciences.pdf.
22. Newbould BB. Chemotherapy of arthritis induced in rats by mycobacterial adjuvant. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1963;21:127-36.
23. Bansod MS, Kagathara VG. Evaluation of analgesics and anti-inflammatory activity of a poly-herbal formulation. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010;2:1520-7.
24. Tripathy S, Pradhan D, Anjana M. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Ammania baccifera linn. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2010;1:1-7.
82 Views | 146 Downloads
How to Cite
K, S., R. CHIKATIPALLI, and C. S. KOTHAPALLI BONNOTH. “ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF AMARANTHUS ROXBURGHIANUS NEVSKI HYDROALCOHOLIC AREAL PLANT EXTRACT IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC MODELS IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 6, June 2020, pp. 111-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i6.36994.
Original Article(s)