NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (2019-nCoV): DISEASE BRIEFINGS
Coronavirus (CoV) (2019‐nCoV) is a large, enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. The abnormal outbreak of 2019‐nCoV in Wuhan warns of the risk of CoV (2019‐nCoV) to public health which causes viral pneumonia outbreak. In our review, we will discuss the biology of CoVs and the potential risk of the novel CoV (2019‐nCoV) and guide us to strategic objectives for controlling the virus.
2. Avialble from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en.
3. Graham RL, Baric RS. Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: Mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission. J Virol 2010;84:3134-46.
4. Li WH, Wong SK, Li F, Kuhn JH, Huang IC, Choe H, et al. Animal origins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: Insight from ACE2-S-protein interactions. J Virol 2006;80:4211-9.
5. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-75, WHO, Data as Reported by National Authorities by No. 10:00CET4; 2020.
6. Shen K, Yang Y. Diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: A pressing issue. World J Pediatr 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s12519-020-00344-6.
7. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 2020;395:565-74.
8. Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric RS, Li F. Receptor recognition by a novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus. J Virol 2020;94:1-9.
9. Rothana HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun 2020;109:102433
10. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/summary.html?cdc_aa_refval=https%3a%2f%2fwww.cdc.gov%2fcoronavirus%2f2019-ncov%2fabout%2fwhat-you-should-do.html#anchor_1580064337377.
11. World Health Organization. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019nCoV): Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020 Some Rights Reserved; 2020.
12. Tok TT, Tatar G. Structures and functions of coronavirus proteins: Molecular modeling of viral nucleoprotein. Int J Virol Infect Dis 2017;2:1-7.
13. Lai MM, Cavanagh D. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res 1997;48:1-100.
14. Li F. Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annu Rev Virol 2016;3:237-61.
15. Phan MT, Tri TN, Anh PH, Baker S, Kellam P, Cotton M, et al. Identification and characterization of Coronaviridae genomes from Vietnamese bats and rats based on conserved protein domains. Virus Evol 2018;4:1-12.
16. Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol 2020;92:418-4231.
17. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: An overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015;1282:1-23.
18. Barcena M, Oostergetel GT, Bartelink W, Faas FG, Verkleij A, Rottier PJ, et al. Cryo-electron tomography of mouse hepatitis virus: Insights into the structure of the coronavirion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106:582-7.
19. Neuman BW, Adair BD, Yoshioka C, Quispe JD, Orca G, Kuhn P, et al. Supramolecular architecture of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. J Virol 2006;80:7918- 28.
20. Lim YX, Ng YL, Tam JP, Liu DX. Human coronaviruses: A review of virus-host interactions. Diseases 2016;4:26.
21. Kolesnikova L, Slenczk W, Brodt H, Klenk H, Becker S. Electron microscopy in diagnostics of SARS case. Microsc Microanal 2003;9:438-9.
22. Marsolais G, Berthiaume L, DiFranco E, Marois P. Rapid diagnosis by electron microscopy of avian coronavirus infection. Can J Comp Med 1971;35:285-8.
23. Bárcena M, Oostergetelb GT, Bartelinkc W, Faasa FG, Verkleijd A, Rottierc PJ, et al. Cryo-electron tomography of mouse hepatitis virus: Insights into the structure of the coronavirion. PNAS 2009;106:582-7.
24. Clarivate Analytics Solution. Disease Briefing: Coronaviruses. Philadelphia, PA: Clarivate Analytics; 2020.
25. Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: Current knowledge. Virol J 2019;16:69.
26. Seah I, Su X, Lingam G. Revisiting the dangers of the coronavirus in the ophthalmology practice. Eye (Lond) 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41433-020-0790-7.
27. Available from: http://www.ceepc.eu/node/19.
28. Chhikara BS, Rathi B, Singh J, Poonam P. Corona virus SARS-CoV-2 disease COVID-19: Infection, prevention and clinical advances of the prospective chemical drug therapeutics. Chem Biol Lett 2020;7:63-72.
29. Baltimore D, Ding S, Doherty PC, Fazakerly J, Gross HJ, Harrison BD, et al. Advances in Virus Research. 1st ed., Vol. 96. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.; 2016.
30. Krijnse-Locker J, Ericsson M, Rottier PJ, Griffiths G. Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: Evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step. J Cell Biol 1994;124:55-70.
31. Tooze J, Tooze S, Warren G. Replication of coronavirus MHV-A59 in sac-cells: Determination of the first site of budding of progeny virions. Eur J Cell Biol 1984;33:281-93.
32. de Haan CA, Rottier PJ. Molecular interactions in the assembly of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res 2005;64:165-230.
33. Heald-Sargent T, Gallagher T. Ready, set, fuse! The coronavirus spike protein and acquisition of fusion competence. Viruses 2012;4:557-80.
34. Wit E, Doremalen N, Falzarano D, Munster VJ. SARS and MERS: Recent insights into emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2016;14:523-34.
35. PAHO, WHO. Epidemiological Update Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Geneva: PAHO, WHO; 2020.
36. Sahin AR, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM, Dineri Y, Cakirci AY, Senel ME, et al. 2019 Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: A review of the current literature. Eurasian J Med Oncol 2020;4:1-7.
37. Ministry of Health Infectious Diseases Protocol. Appendix A: Disease-Specific Chapters, Diseases Caused by a Novel Coronavirus, Including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS); 2020.
38. Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Novel Coronavirus FAQs. United States: Kansas Department of Health and Environment; 2020.
39. Heymann DL, Shindo N, On Behalf of the WHO Scientific and Technical Advisory Group for Infectious Hazards. COVID-19: What is next for public health? Lancet 2020;395:542-5.
40. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol 2020;92:441-7.
41. Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Khan K. Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in wuhan, China: Potential for international spread via commercial air travel. J Trav Med 2020;27:taaa008.
42. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol 2020;92:401-2.
43. Zhao S, Lin Q, Ran J, Musa SS, Yang G, Wang W, et al. Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Int J Infect Dis 2020;92:214-7.
44. Fan C, Li K, Ding Y, Lu W, Wang J. ACE2 Expression in Kidney and Testis May Cause Kidney and Testis Damage After 2019-nCoV Infection; 2020.
45. Li Z, Wu M, Guo J, Yao J, Liao X, Song S. Caution on Kidney Dysfunctions of 2019-nCoV Patients; 2020.
46. National Health Commission and State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia. Beijing: The General Office of National Health Commission; 2020.
47. World Health Organization. Laboratory Biosafety Guidance Related to the Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV, Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
48. World Health Organization. Aboratory Testing of Human Suspected Cases of Novel Coronavirus (nCoV) Infection Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
49. Xiao S, Wu Y, Liu H. Evolving status of the 2019 novel coronavirus infection: Proposal of conventional serologic assays for disease diagnosis and infection monitoring. J Med Virol 2020;92:464-7.
50. Chu DK, Pan Y, Cheng SM, Hui KP, Krishnan P, Liu Y, et al. Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clin Chem 2020;66:549-55.
51. Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W, Wu W, Chen S, Zhang W, et al. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. Viruses 2020;12:E372.
52. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html.
53. Hui DS, Azhar EI, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health-the latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020;91:264-6.
54. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13.
55. Warren TK, Jordan R, Lo MK, Ray AS, Mackman RL, Soloveva V, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys. Nature 2016;531:381-5.
56. Jordan PC, Liu C, Raynaud P, Lo MK, Spiropoulou CF, Symons JA, et al. Initiation, extension, and termination of RNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase. PLoS Pathog 2018;14:e1006889.
57. Cockrell AS, Yount BL, Scobey T, Jensen K, Douglas M, Beall A, et al. A mouse model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nat Microbiol 2016;2:16226.
58. Brown AJ, Won JJ, Graham RL, Dinnon KH 3rd, Sims AC, Feng JY, et al. Broad spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibits human endemic and zoonotic deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Antiviral Res 2019;169:104541.
59. Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus infections-more than just the common cold. JAMA 2020;323:707-8.
60. Gautret P, Lagier J, Parola P, Hoang T, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: Results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;105949. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.
61. Smith T, Bushek J, Prosser T. COVID-19 Drug Therapy-Potential Options. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2020.
62. Rabi FA, Al Zoubi MS, Kasasbeh GA, Salameh DM, Al-Nasser AD.SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019: What we know so far. Pathogens 2020;9:E231.
63. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Napoli R. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
64. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020;30:269-71.
65. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/therapeutic-options.html.
66. Available from: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-clinical-trial-investigational-vaccine-covid-19-begins.
67. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report No. 36. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.