IN VITRO SCREENING AND CORRELATION OF ETHANOLIC PEEL EXTRACTS OF PUNICA GRANATUM AND CITRUS SINENSIS WITH RESPECT TO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic peel extracts of Punica granatum and Citrus sinensis on total phenolics, total antioxidants, and radical scavenging activities using different in vitro models.
Methods: Pomegranate and orange fruits at the maturity stage were manually peeled, washed, and air dried before extraction. Dried peels were grinded, weighed, and extracted with 95% ethanol and were used for in vitro analysis. Different concentrations of extracts for each peel were prepared. Total phenolics content, total antioxidant capacity, and free radical scavenging activities of each peel extract were estimated in the form of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, hydroxyl free radical scavenging assay, and superoxide free radical scavenging assay, respectively.
Results: The ethanolic peel extracts of P. granatum and C. sinensis showed significant increased total phenolic contents and total antioxidant activity. Furthermore, radical scavenging activity (hydroxyl and superoxide) was found to be significant in both ethanolic peel extracts.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that the ethanolic peel extracts of P. granatum and C. sinensis has potential antioxidant and antiradical activity.
2. Li Y, Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Xu J, Cheng S. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chem 2005;96:254-60.
3. Han J, Weng X, Bi K. Antioxidants from a Chinese medicinal herb- Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Food Chem 2008;106:2-10.
4. Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial byproducts: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem 2006;99:191-203.
5. Reddy M, Gupta S, Jacob M, Khan S, Ferreira D. Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L. Planta Med 2007;73:461-7.
6. Moure A, Cruz J, Franco D, Domoanguez J, Sineiro J, Domoanguez H, et al. Natural an-tioxidants from residual sources. Food Chem 2001;72:145-71.
7. Madrigal-Carballo S, Rodriguez G, Krueger C, Dreher M, Reed J. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) supplements: Authenticity, antioxidant and polyphenols composition. J Funct Foods 2009;1:324-9.
8. Murthy KC, Jayaprakasha G, Singh R. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts in vivo models. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:4791-5.
9. Abd El-Aal HA, Halaweish FT. Food preservative activity of phenolic compounds in orange peel extracts (Citrus sinensis L.). Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice 2010;53:233-240.
10. Manthey A, Grohmann K. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts: Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:3268-73.
11. Kumar KA, Narayani M, Subanthini A, Jayakumar M. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of citrus fruit peels utilization of fruit waste. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2011;3:5414-21.
12. Larrauri JA, Ruperez P, Bravo L, Calixto FS. High dietary fibre powders from orange and lime peels: Associated polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Food Res Intern 1996;29:757-62.
13. Andressa B, Gisely CL, João CP. Application and analysis of the folin ciocalteu method for the determination of the total phenolic content from Limonium brasiliense L. Molecules 2013;18:6852-5.
14. Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337-41.
15. Smirnoff N, Cumbes QJ. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry 1989;28:1057-60.
16. Nishikimi M, Rao NA, Yagi K. The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulphate and molecular oxygen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1972;46:849-54.
17. Hendre AS, Sontakke AV, Phatak RS. Evaluation of in-vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2018;9:678-85.
18. Parashar S, Sharma H, Garg M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of fruits and vegetable peels: A review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;3:160-4.
19. Yadav R, Rajviadhya R, Samnani A. Review on antioxidants activity and its evaluation. WJPR 2012;1:41-58.
20. Phatak RS, Pratinidhi AK, Hendre AS. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of spices mixture extract as additive with reference to synthetic antioxidant. Der Pharm Lett 2015;7:27-34.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.