EXTRACTION, MODIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL POLYMERS USED IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN UPDATED REVIEW

  • DIPJYOTI BISWAS Department of Pharmaceutics, Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, East Sikkim, Sikkim, India.
  • SUDIP DAS Department of Pharmaceutics, Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, East Sikkim, Sikkim, India.
  • SOURAV MOHANTO Department of Pharmaceutics, Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, East Sikkim, Sikkim, India.
  • SHUBHRAJIT MANTRY Department of Pharmaceutics, Sharadchandra Pawar College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The modified/regulated drug delivery system helps to sustain the delivery of the drug for a prolonged period. The modified drug delivery system is primarily aimed at ensuring protection, the effectiveness of the drug, and patient compliance. The transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) falls within the modified drug delivery system, in which the goal is to deliver the drug at a fixed dose and regulated rate through the skin. Polymers are the backbone of the framework for providing transdermal systems. The polymer should be stable, non-toxic, economical, and provide a sustainable release of the drug. In general, natural polymers used in the TDDS as rate-controlling agents, protective, and stabilizing agents and also used to minimize the frequency of dosing and improve the drug’s effectiveness by localizing at the site of action. Nowadays, manufacturers are likely to use natural polymers due to many issues associated with drug release and side effects with synthetic polymers. Drug release processes from natural polymers include oxidation, diffusion, and swelling. Natural polymers may be used as the basis to achieve predetermined drug distribution throughout the body. The use of natural materials for traditional and modern types of dosage forms are gums, mucilages, resins, and plant waste etc. Thus, the main objective of this review article is to give a brief knowledge about the extraction, modification, characterization, and biomedical application of conventional natural polymers used in the transdermal drug delivery system and their future prospective.

Keywords: Natural polymer, polysaccharide, Gums, Mucilages, Extraction, Modification, Characterization, Application, Transdermal drug delivery system

References

1. Beneke CE, Viljoen AM, Hamman JH. Polymeric plant-derived excipients in drug delivery. Molecules 2009;14:2602-20.
2. Pillai O, Panchagnula R. Polymers in drug delivery. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2001;5:447-51.
3. Ngwuluka NC, Akanbi M, Agboyo I, Uwaezuoke OJ. Characterization of gum from Sesamum indicum leaves as a suspending agent in a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. World J Pharm Res 2012;1:909-24.
4. Sonia TA, Sharma CP. An overview of natural polymers for oral insulin delivery. Drug Discov Today 2012;17:784-92.
5. Malafaya PB, Silva GA, Reis RL. Natural origin polymers as carriers and scaffolds for biomolecules and cell delivery in tissue engineering applications. Adv Drug Deli Rev 2007;59:207-33.
6. Ngwuluka NC, Kyari J, Taplong J, Uwaezuoke OJ. Application and characterization of gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as an excipient in tablet formulation. Pharmaceutics 2012;4:354-65.
7. Hoppel M, Mahrhauser D, Stallinger C, Wagner F. Natural polymer-stabilized multiple water-in-oil-in-water emulsions: A novel dermal drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil. J Pharm Pharmacol 2014;66:658-67.
8. Nayak AK, Pal D, Pany DR, Mohanty B. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:338-41.
9. Coviello T, Dentini M, Rambone G, Desideri P, Carafa M, Murtas E, et al. A novel co-crosslinked polysaccharide: Studies for a controlled delivery matrix. J Control Release 1998;55:57-66.
10. Umekar M, Yeole P. Characterization and evaluation of natural copal gum-resin as film forming material. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:37-42.
11. Kumar R, Shirwaikar AA, Shirwaikar A, Prabu S, Mahalaxmi R, Rajendran K, et al. Studies of disintegrant properties of seed mucilage of Ocimum gratissimum. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:753-8.
12. Avachat AM, Dash RR, Shrotriya SN. Recent investigations of plant based natural gums, mucilages and resins in novel drug delivery systems. Ind J Pharm Edu Res 2011;45:86-99.
13. Hoare TR, Kohane DS. Hydrogels in drug delivery: Progress and challenges. Polymer 2008;49:1993-2007.
14. Prajapati VD, Jani GK, Moradiya NG, Randeria NP. Pharmaceutical applications of various natural gums, mucilages and their modified forms. Carbohydr Polym 2013;92:1685-99.
15. Wang S, Chen A, Weng L, Chen M, Xie X. Effect of drug-loading methods on drug load, encapsulation efficiency and release properties of alginate/poly-l-arginine/chitosan ternary complex microcapsules. Macromol Biosci 2004;4:27-30.
16. Ochoa M, Mousoulis C, Ziaie B. Polymeric microdevices for transdermal and subcutaneous drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012;64:1603-16.
17. Nesseem DI, Eid SF, E-Houseny SS. Development of novel transdermal self-adhesive films for tenoxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug. Life Sci 2011;89:430-8.
18. Shingade GM, Aamer Q, Sabale PM, Grampurohit ND, Gadhave MV. Review on: Recent trend on transdermal drug delivery system. J Drug Del Ther 2012;2:66-75.
19. Paudel KS, Milewski M, Swadley CL, Brogden NK, Ghosh P, Stinchcomb AL. Challenges and opportunities in dermal/transdermal delivery. Ther Denliv 2010;1:109-31.
20. Prausnitz MR, Langer R. Transdermal drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol 2008;26:1261-8.
21. Vishwakarma SK, Niranjan SK, Irchhaiya R, Kumar N, Akhtar AA. Novel transdermal drug delivery system. Int J Res Pharm 2012;3:39- 44.
22. Shingade GM, Aamer Q, Sabale PM, Gramprohit ND, Gadhave MV, Jadhav SL, et al. Review on: Recent trend on transdermal drug delivery system. J Drug Deliv Ther 2012;2:66-75.
23. Sethi B, Mazumder R. Comparative evaluation of selected polymers and plasticizer on transdermal drug delivery system. Int J App Pharm 2018;10:67-73.
24. Jayaprakash R, Hameed J, Anupriya A. An overview of transdermal delivery system. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:36-40.
25. Arunachalam A, Karthikeyan M, Kumar VD, Prathap M, Sethuraman S, Manidipa S, et al. Transdermal drug delivery system: A review. Curr Pharm Res 2010;1:70-81.
26. Kapoor D, Patel M, Singhal M. Innovations in transdermal drug delivery system. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:54-61.
27. Deb J, Das M, Das A. Excellency of natural polymer in drug delivery system: A review. Int J Pharm Biol Sci Arch 2017;5:17-22.
28. Ahuja M, Kumar S, Yadav M. Evaluation of mimosa seed mucilage as bucoadhesive polymer. Yakugaku Zasshi 2010;130:937-44.
29. Vinod VT, Sashidhar RB, Suresh KI, Rao R, Suresh B. Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): A tree gum from India. Food Hydrocoll 2008;22:899-915.
30. Goh KK, Matia-Merino L, Pinder DN, Saavedra C, Singh H. Molecular characteristics of a novel water-soluble polysaccharide from the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris). Food Hydrocoll 2011;25:286-92.
31. Saeedi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Ansoroudi F, Fallah S, Amin G. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage. Acta Pharm 2010;60:339-48.
32. Rao MR, Sadaphule P, Khembete M, Lunawat H, Thanki K, Gabhe N. Characterization of psyllium (Plantago ovata) polysaccharide and its use as a binder in tablets. Ind J Pharm Educ Res 2013;47:154-9.
33. Gowthamarajan K, Kumar GK, Gaikwad NB, Suresh B. Preliminary study of Anacardium occidentale gum as binder in formulation of paracetamol tablets. Carbohydr Polym 2011;83:506-11.
34. Deore S, Khadabadi S. Standardisation and pharmaceutical evaluation of Chlorophytum borivilianum mucilage. Rasayan J Chem 2008;1:887-92.
35. Ghule B, Jain D, Darwhekar G, Yeole P. Evaluation of binding properties of Eulophia campestris wall mucilage. Ind J Pharm Sci 2006;68:566-9.
36. Singh B, Chauhan N. Modification of psyllium polysaccharides for use in oral insulin delivery. Food Hydrocoll 2009;23:928-35.
37. Singh B, Chauhan GS, Sharma DK, Kant A, Gupta I, Chauhan N. The release dynamics of model drugs from the psyllium and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide based hydrogels. Int J Pharm 2006;325:15-25.
38. Singh B, Kumar S. Synthesis and characterization of psyllium- NVP based drug delivery system through radiation crosslinking polymerization. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B Beam Interact Mater Atoms 2008;266:3417-30.
39. Singh B, Sharma N. Modification of sterculia gum with methacrylic acid to prepare a novel drug delivery system. Int J Biol Macromol 2008;43:142-50.
40. Singh B, Sharma N. Development of novel hydrogels by functionalization of Sterculia gum for use in anti-ulcer drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 2008;74:489-97.
41. Bharaniraja B, Jayaram KK, Prasad CM, Sen AK. Different approaches of katira gum formulations for colon targeting. Int J Biol Macromol 2011;49:305-10.
42. Bharaniraja B, Jayaram KK, Prasad CM, Sen AK. Modified katira gum for colon targeted drug delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 2011;119:2644-51.
43. Gliko-Kabir I, Yagen B, Penhasi A, Rubinstein A. Phosphated crosslinked guar for colon-specific drug delivery: I. Preparation and physicochemical characterization. J Control Release 2000;63:121-7.
44. Silva DA, Feitosa JP, Maciel JS, Paulab HC, de Paulaa RC. Characterization of crosslinked cashew gum derivatives. Carbohydr Polym 2006;66:16-26.
45. Verraest DL, Peters JA, Batelaan JG, van Bekkum H. Carboxymethylation of inulin. Carbohydr Res 1995;271:101-12.
46. Silva DA, de Paula RC, Feitosa JP, de Brito AC, Maciela JS, Paulab HC. Carboxymethylation of cashew tree exudate polysaccharide. Carbohydr Polym 2004;58:163-71.
47. Goyal P, Kumar V, Sharma P. Carboxymethylation of tamarind kernel powder. Carbohydr Polym 2007;69:251-5.
48. Dey P, Sa B, Maiti S. Carboxymethyl ethers of locust bean gum-a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:4-7.
49. Sen G, Pal S. A novel polymeric biomaterial based on carboxymethyl starch and its application in controlled drug release. J Appl Polym Sci 2009;114:2798-805.
50. Ren J, Sun R, Peng F. Carboxymethylation of hemicelluloses isolated from sugarcane bagasse. Polym Degrad Stab 2008;93:786-93.
51. Kobayashi S, Tsujihata S, Hibi N, Tsukamoto Y. Preparation and rheological characterization of carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan. Food Hydrocoll 2002;16:289-94.
52. Petzold K, Schwikal K, Günther W, Heinze T. Carboxymethyl xylan-control of properties by synthesis. Macromol Symp 2005;232:27-36.
53. Parvathy KS, Susheelamma NS, Tharanathan RN, Gaonkar AK. A simple non-aqueous method for carboxymethylation of galactomannans. Carbohydr Polym 2005;62:137-41.
54. Gupta S, Sharma P, Soni PL. Chemical modification of Cassia occidentalis seed gum: Carbamoylethylation. Carbohydr Polym 2005;59:501-6.
55. Sharma BR, Kumar V, Soni PL. Carbamoylethylation of Cassia tora gum. Carbohydr Polym 2003;54:143-7.
56. Sharma BR, Kumar V, Soni PL. Cyanoethylation of Cassia tora gum. Starch 2003;55:38-42.
57. Goyal P, Kumar V, Sharma P. Cyanoethylation of tamarind kernel powder. Starch 2008;60:41-7.
58. Deshmukh V, Jadhav J, Masirkar V, Sakarkar D. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of controlled release alginate microspheres using synergy gum blends. Res J Pharm Technol 2009;2:324-7.
59. Odeku OA, Okunlola A, Lamprecht A. Microbead design for sustained drug release using four natural gums. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;58:113-20.
60. Ngwuluka NC, Choonara YE, Modi G, du Toit LC, Kumar P, Ndesendo MK. Design of an interpolyelectrolyte gastroretentive matrix for the site-specific zero-order delivery of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. AAPS PharmSciTech 2013;14:1-15.
61. Yang L, Zhang L. Chemical structural and chain conformational characterization of some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources. Carbohydr Polym 2009;76:349-61.
62. Shekunov BY, York P. Crystallization processes in pharmaceutical technology and drug delivery design. J Cryst Growth 2000;211:122- 36.
63. Harding SE, Varum K, Stokke BT, Smidsrod O. Molecular weight determination of polysaccharides. Adv Carbohydr Anal 1991;1:63- 144.
64. Zhang M, Zhang L, Cheung PC, Dong J. Fractionation and characterization of a polysaccharide from the sclerotia of pleurotus tuber-regium by preparative size-exclusion chromatography. J Biochem Biophys Methods 2003;56:281-9.
65. Summers M, O’Leary M. High speed, high resolution analysis of low molecular weight polymers using the advanced polymer chromatography (APC) system. Polym Anal Appl 2013;5:9-12.
66. Champion JA, Katare YK, Mitragotri S. Particle shape: A new design parameter for micro and nanoscale drug delivery carriers. J Control Release 2007;121:3-9.
67. Caldorera-Moore M, Guimard N, Shi L, Roy K. Designer nanoparticles: Incorporating size, shape and triggered release into nanoscale drug carriers. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2010;7:479-95.
68. Eronen P, Osterberg M, Jaaskelainen A. Effect of alkaline treatment on cellulose supramolecular structure studied with combined confocal Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cellulose 2009;16:167-78.
69. Di Lorenzo ML. The crystallization and melting processes of poly (L-lactic acid). Macromol Symp 2006;234:176-83.
70. Omelczuk MO, McGinity JW. The influence of polymer glass transition temperature and molecular weight on drug release from tablets containing poly (DL-lactic acid). Pharm Res 1992;9:26-32.
71. Dong Y, Ruan Y, Wang H, Zhao Y, Bi D. Studies on glass transition temperature of chitosan with four techniques. J Appl Polym Sci 2004;93:1553-8.
72. Jones DS, Woolfson AD, Brown AF. Textural, viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties of pharmaceutical gels composed of cellulose polymers. Int J Pharm 1997;151:223-33.
73. Alur HH, Pather SI, Mitra AK, Johnston TP. Transmucosal sustained-delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate in rabbits using a novel, natural mucoadhesive gum as an excipient in buccal tablets. Int J Pharm 1999;188:1-10.
74. Ramakrishnan A, Pandit N, Badgujar M, Bhaskar C, Rao M. Encapsulation of endoglucanase using a biopolymer gum Arabic for its controlled release. Bioresour Technol 2007;98:368-72.
75. Nishi KK, Antony M, Mohanan PV, Anilkumar TV, Loiseau PM, Jayakrishnan A. Amphotericin B-Gum Arabic conjugates: Synthesis, toxicity, bioavailability, and activities against Leishmania and fungi. Pharm Res 2007;24:971-80.
76. Lu EX, Jiang ZQ, Zhang QZ, Jiang XG. A water-insoluble drug monolithic osmotic tablet system utilizing gum arabic as an osmotic, suspending and expanding agent. J Control Release 2003;92:375-82.
77. Anderson DM, Stoddart JF. Studies on uronic acid materials: Part XV. The use of molecular-sieve chromatography in studies on acacia Senegal gum (gum arabic). Carbohy Res 1996;2:104-14.
78. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. 22nd ed. India: Nirali Prakashan; 2003. p. 133-66.
79. Chandramouli Y, Manchanda R. Tamarind seed polysaccharide (tsp)- an adaptable excipient for novel drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm Pract Drug Res 2012;2:57-63.
80. Panda DS. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014;6:92-6.
81. Thombare N, Jha U, Mishra S, Siddiqui MZ. Guar gum as a promising starting material for diverse applications: A review. Int J Biol Macromol 2016;88:361-72.
82. Zare EN, Makvandi P, Tay FR. Recent progress in the industrial and biomedical applications of tragacanth gum: A review. Carbohydr Polym 2019;212:450-67.
83. Barak S, Mudgil D. Locust bean gum: Processing, properties and food applications--a review. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;66:74-80.
84. Sabale V, Paranjape A, Patel V, Sabale P. Characterization of natural polymers from jackfruit pulp, calendula flowers and Tara seeds as mucoadhesive and controlled release components in buccal tablets. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;95:321-30.
85. Kumar S, Gupta SK. Rosin: A naturally derived excipient in drug delivery systems. Polim Med 2013;43:45-8.
86. Mundada AS, Avari JG. In vitro and in vivo characterization of novel biomaterial for transdermal application. Curr Drug Deliv 2011;8:517-25.
87. Fulbandhe VM, Jobanputra CR, Wadher KJ, Umekar MJ, Bhoyar GS. Evaluation of release retarding property of gum damar and gum copal in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Indian J Pharm Sci 2012;74:189-94.
88. Sriamornsak P. Application of pectin in oral drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2011;8:1009-23.
89. Zhang W, Mahuta KM, Mikulski BA, Harvestine JN, Crouse JZ, Lee JC, et al. Novel pectin-based carriers for colonic drug delivery. Pharm Dev Technol 2016;21:127-30.
90. Jain D, Bar-Shalom D. Alginate drug delivery systems: Application in context of pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014;40:1576-84.
91. Li H, Jiang F, Ye S, Wu Y, Zhu K, Wang D. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;62:779-86.
92. Kumar A, Rao KM, Han SS. Application of xanthan gum as polysaccharide in tissue engineering: A review. Carbohydr Polym 2018;180:128-44.
93. Petri DF. Xanthan gum: A versatile biopolymer for biomedical and technological applications. J Appl Polym Sci 2015;132:42035.
94. Sharma K, Singh V, Arora A. Natural biodegradable polymers as matrices in transdermal drug delivery. Int J Drug Develop Res 2011;3:85-103.
95. Banerjee S, Singh S, Chattopadhyay P. Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of a combinational prophylactic transdermal patch by Ames test. Immuno Anal Biol Spéc 2013;28:322-6.
96. Duangjit S, Buacheen P, Priebprom P, Limpanichkul S. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan for transdermal patch of clindamycin. Adv Mater Res 2014;1060:21-4.
97. Katti S, Suryavanshi S, Bhirud R. Formulation and development of transdermal patch of tizanidine hydrochloride. Asian J Res Chem Pharm Sci 2017;5:69-75.
98. Karemore M, Dandare M, Belgamwar A. Design and evaluation of carvedilol transdermal patch using natural polymers. J Pharm Res 2012;5:4947-9.
99. Singh B, Varshney L, Francis S. Synthesis and characterization of tragacanth gum-based hydrogels by radiation method for use in wound dressing application. Radia Phys Chem 2017;1:94-105.
100. Kaur R, Sharma A, Puri V. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite films of carrageenan/locust bean gum/montmorrillonite for transdermal delivery of curcumin. BioImpacts 2019;9:37-43.
101. Bhoyar V, Dixit G, Upadhye K. Fabrication and in-vitro characterisation of transdermal patch using jackfruit mucilage as natural polymer. Pharmacophore 2015;6:267-80.
102. Satturwar P, Fulzele S, Dorle A. Evaluation of polymerized rosin for the formulation and development of transdermal drug delivery system: A technical note. AAPS PharmSciTech 2005;6:E649-54.
103. Mundada A, Avari J. Evaluation of gum copal as rate controlling membrane for transdermal application: Effect of plasticizers. Acta Pharm Sci 2010;52:31-8.
104. Mundada A, Avari J. Damar Batu as a novel matrix former for the transdermal drug delivery: In vitro evaluation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2009;35:1147-52.
105. Bhatnagar S, Chawla S, Kulkarni O. Zein microneedles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery: Fabrication, characterization, and in vivo evaluation using ovalbumin as the model antigen. ACS Omega 2017;2:1321-32.
106. Suksaeree J, Prasomkij J, Panrat K. Comparison of pectin layers for nicotine transdermal patch preparation. Adv Pharm Bull 2018;8:401-10.
107. Rajesh N, Siddaramaiah. Feasibility of xanthan gum sodium alginate as a transdermal drug delivery system for domperidone. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009;20:2085-9.
108. Betageri S, Dev D, Thirumaleshwar S. Development and evaluation of transdermal films loaded with propranolol. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2015;5:197-205.
109. Saboktakin M, Akhyari S. Synthesis and characterization of modified starch/polybutadiene asnovel transdermal drug delivery system. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;69:442-6.
110. Pairatwachapun S, Paradee N, Sirivat A. Controlled release of acetylsalicylic acid from polythiophene/carrageenan hydrogel via electrical stimulation. Carbohydr Polym 2015;137:214-21.
111. Knepp V, Hinz R, Szoka F. Controlled drug release from a novel liposomal delivery system-investigation of transdermal potential. J Control Release 1988;5:211-21.
112. Patel D, Setty C, Mistry G. Development and evaluation of ethyl cellulose-based transdermal films of furosemide for improved in vitro skin permeation. AAPS PharmSciTech 2009;10:437-42.
113. Kim Y, Banga A. Design and evaluation of a poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-based in situ film-forming system for topical delivery of trolamine salicylate. Pharmaceutics 2019;11:E409.
114. Wang Z, Itoh Y, Hosaka Y. Mechanism of enhancement effect of dendrimer on transdermal drug permeation through polyhydroxyalkanoate matrix. J Biosci Bioeng 2003;96:537-40.
115. Floriano J, Barros N, Cinman J. Ketoprofen loaded in natural rubber latex transdermal patch for tendinitis treatment. J Polym Environ 2017;26:2281-9.
116. Rehman M, Madni A, Webster TJ. The era of biofunctional biomaterials in orthopedics: What does the future hold? Expert Rev Med Devices 2018;15:193-204.
117. Mari CE, del Burgo LS, Jose LP, Orive G. Gelatin as biomaterial for tissue engineering. Curr Pharm Des 2017;23:3567-84.
118. Linshu L, Marshall L, Fishman B. Pectinin controlled drug delivery a review. J Control Release 2007;14:15-24.
Statistics
46 Views | 80 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
BISWAS, D., S. DAS, S. MOHANTO, and S. MANTRY. “EXTRACTION, MODIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL POLYMERS USED IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN UPDATED REVIEW”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 7, Apr. 2020, pp. 10-20, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i7.37756.
Section
Review Article(s)