• TAO GIA PHU Department of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tra Vinh University, Tra Vinh City, Viet Nam.
  • HUYNH THI HONG NHUNG Department of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tra Vinh University, Tra Vinh City, Viet Nam.


Objective: HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to be a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the correlation of recovery responses and baseline CD4 T cells’ level in HIV/AIDS adult patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Vietnam.

Methods: The study was a clinic-based longitudinal study done at an outpatient clinic, Tropical Diseases Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from 10/2018 to 8/2019.

Results: Ninety-three patients were provided informed consent to participate in this study. Overall, the mean of CD4 T cell counts was 161.7 cells/μl. In AIDS patients groups, at the baseline mean of T CD4 cell was 65 cells/μl and in the non-AIDS group was 315 cells/μl. The slope of the plotted overall CD4 cell counts increased significantly in both two groups and the steepest increases in the first 3 months. After 6 months, patients who were AIDS stages were had a higher viral load in plasma than others, with p<0.005. The changes in CD4 T cell counts were significantly associated with age and occupational status.

Conclusion: The present study found that immunological responses of patients with first-line ART were not related to baseline CD4 T cells’ level. However, low baseline CD4 counts were associated with poor virologic suppression.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Antiretroviral therapy, CD4 T cell


1. UNAIDS. Global Summary of the AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2016.
2. World Health Organization. Update of Recommendations on First and Second-line Antiretroviral Regimens. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.
3. Daniel WG, Benson RK, Mshana SE. Accuracy of WHO immunological criteria in identifying virological failure among HIV-infected adults on first line antiretroviral therapy in Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania. BMC Res Notes 2017;10:45.
4. World Health Organization. HIV Drug Resistance Report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
5. Fengdi Z, Meiyan S, Jianjun S, Guan L, Wang J, Lu H. The risk factors for suboptimal CD4 recovery in HIV infected population: An observational and retrospective study in Shanghai, China. Biosci Trends 2015;9:335-41.
6. Serawit D, Alemayehu T, Fiker T. Pattern and predictors of cluster of differentiation 4 cell count recovery among cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Hawassa university referral hospital. J AIDS HIV Res 2018;10:40-8.
7. Olubusuyi MA, Georgina NO, Olaleyea OD. Baseline CD4 T cell level predicts recovery rate after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians. J Immunoassay Immunochem 2015;37:109-18.
8. Hailay AG, Paul W, Kifle W, Mwanri L. Immunological failure in HIV-infected adults from 2003 to 2015 in Southwest Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2018;8:e017413.
9. Kesetebirhan DY, Susan H. Prevalence and predictors of immunological failure among HIV patients on HAART in Southern Ethiopia. PLoS One 2015;10:e0125826.
10. Addisu A, Dagim A, Tadele E. CD4 cell count trends after commencement of antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected patients in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A retrospective cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2015;10:e0122583.
11. World Health Organization. HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
12. World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS Program Highlights. Geneva: World Health Organization, UNAIDS; 2006.
13. Diaz M, Douek DC, Valdez H, Hill BJ, Peterson D, Sanne I, et al. T cells containing T cell receptor excision circles are inversely related to HIV replication and are selectively and rapidly released into circulation with antiretroviral treatment. AIDS 2004;17:1145-9.
14. Steve K, Jean N, Anna F, Mukasa B, Montaner JS, Ford N, et al. CD4 T cell recovery after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting: A prospective cohort analysis. Antivir Ther 2014;19:31-9.
15. Johnathon DB, Sarah DS, Tina C. CD4 count recovery after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Med Sci 2016;352:239-44.
16. Ronald JB, Rui W, Florin V. Changes in the slope of the CD4 cell count increase after initiation of potent antiretroviral treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;43:433-5.
17. Kroeze S, Ondoa P, Kityo CM, Siwale M, Akanmu S, Wellington M, et al. Suboptimal immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy with sustained HIV suppression in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 2018;32:1043-51.
18. Wondu T, Ambachew T. Detection of immunological treatment failure among HIV infected patients in Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study. BMC Immunol 2015;16:55.
19. Junko T, Shoko M, Sebastien H. Long-term viral suppression and immune recovery during first-line antiretroviral therapy: A study of an HIV-infected adult cohort in Hanoi, Vietnam. J Int AIDS Soc 2017;20:e25030.
20. Jian W, Biyan L, Xiaoping Z. An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine. Front Med 2014;8:362-7.
21. The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe. Actors associated with short-term changes in HIV viral load and CD4R cell count in antiretroviral-naive individual. AIDS 2014;28:1351-6.
22. Ingole N, Mehta P, Pazare A. Performance of immunological response in predicting virological failure. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013;29:541-6.
23. Mpondo CT, Daniel WG, Semvua BK, Mgina E. Immunological and clinical responses following the use of antiretroviral therapy among elderly HIV-infected individuals attending care and treatment clinic in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective cohort study. J Sex Transm Dis 2016;2016:5235269.
24. Somshankar D, Mahesh D. Simultaneous estimation of lamivudine, abacavir and dolutegravir by UPLC method. Int J App Pharm 2018;10:46-52.
25. Emmanuel IO, Nkiruka RU, Ofia AK. Assessment of kidney function, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index in HIV seropositive subjects on antiretroviral therapy in Nnewi. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:44-9.
50 Views | 27 Downloads
How to Cite
PHU, T. G., and H. T. HONG NHUNG. “THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BASELINE CD4 T CELLS’ LEVEL AND RECOVERY RATE AFTER INITIATION OF ART IN HIV/AIDS INFECTED AT HOSPITAL FOR TROPICAL DISEASES, VIETNAM”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 10, July 2020, pp. 58-61, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.38383.
Original Article(s)