• SIRIKHWAN TINRAT Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • CHATCHAWAN SINGHAPOL Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.


Objective: This study evaluated the phytochemical compounds, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaf extract and used it as an auxiliary herbal constituent in natural hair shampoo.

Methods: VA leaf was macerated in various solvents. All crude extracts were phytochemical compounds screened and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities before formulating a natural shampoo formula. Natural shampoos were evaluated with physic-chemical properties and sensory satisfaction.

Results: About 95% ethanolic extract was the most suitable substrate for product development. It reveals the inhibition zone from 7.00±0.00 to 15.00±1.00 mm and possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial agents against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations value ranged from 6.250 to 100 mg/ml and 25 to >200 mg/ml, respectively. About 95% ethanolic extract also revealed high antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of DPPH of 95% ethanolic extract was 1.88±0.02 μg/ml (% inhibition of 85.73±0.01) and the ferric reducing ability power was 23.00±0.50 mg AAE/100 gDW. These high biological activities may be due to a broad range of phytochemical compounds, including saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids.

Conclusions: The VA leaf was suitable to use as an ingredient in natural shampoos with a low detrimental effect on normal skin flora. The shampoo with 0.00188% of 95% ethanolic extract was the most suitable formula in terms of characteristics and stability. This formula also obtained the highest satisfaction level under our sensory evaluation.

Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Phytochemical compounds, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, Natural shampoo formulation


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How to Cite
TINRAT, S., and C. SINGHAPOL. “EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA LEAF EXTRACTS AS AN AUXILIARY IN NATURAL HAIR SHAMPOO”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 10, July 2020, pp. 50-57, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.38581.
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