• Rashmi Anupozu JNTUH




Psychological distress, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Cancer, Mental health, Anxiety


Objective: The main objective of the present study is to determine the depression and anxiety using standardized rating scales in cancer patients.

Methods: This prospective observational study was performed in 120 cancer patients at a local government cancer hospital. Subjects were interviewed and data were collected using standard Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaires. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software version 26.

Results: Out of 120 patients, 75.8% were male and 24.2% were female. The maximum number of subjects (n=66, 55%) were within the age group of 41–60 years and from the urban region (54.2%). Analyzing the depression status from the PHQ-9 questionnaire, severe depression was seen high among females (31%) when compared to males (19.8%). From the scores obtained by the GAD-7 questionnaire, it was found that males with normal anxiety (26.4%) and severe anxiety (11%) were more when compared to females. On performing regression, females were 0.572 times at a higher risk of developing depression and 2.005 times likely to have GAD when compared to males.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that majority of subjects with psychiatric disorders are in the age group of 41–60 years and are from the urban region. Early screening of the cancer patients for depression and GAD using validated questionnaires such as PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and providing appropriate counseling or therapy on a timely basis helps them to manage their adverse symptoms and boosts the mental health of the subjects.


Download data is not yet available.


Bukberg J, Penman D, Holland JC. Depression in hospitalized cancer patients. Psychosom Med 1984;46:199-212.

Shiel WC. Medical Definition of Psycho-oncology. Medicine Net; 2018. Available from: https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art. asp?articlekey=33446.

Satin JR, Linden W, Phillips MJ. Depression as a predictor of disease progression and mortality in cancer patients: A meta-analysis. Cancer 2009;115:5349-61.

Sloan EK, Priceman SJ, Cox BF, Yu S, Pimentel MA, Tangkanangnukul V, et al. The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer. Cancer Res 2010;70:7042-52.

Thaker PH, Han LY, Kamat AA, Arevalo JM, Takahashi R, Lu C, et al. Chronic stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma. Nat Med 2006;12:939-44.

Rukminingsih F, Andayani TM, Rahmawati F, Widayati K. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer patients with hormone responsive. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:47-9.

Piero NM, Joan NM. Cancer: A molecular curse? Int J Curr Pharm Res 2015;7:1-3.

Pinquart M, Duberstein PR. Depression and cancer mortality: A meta-analysis. Psychol Med 2010;40:1797-810.

Williams S, Dale J. The effectiveness of treatment for depression/ depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: A systematic review. Br J Cancer 2006;94:372-90.

Rost K, Nutting P, Smith J, Werner J, Duan N. Improving depression outcomes in community primary care practice: A randomized trial of the quEST intervention. Quality enhancement by strategic teaming. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:143-9.

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606-13.

Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1092-7.

Wolch JR. Public problems: The management of urban distress. Economic Geography. Vol. 64. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.; 1988. p. 286-8.

National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (NCRAS). The Effect of Rurality on Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Available from: http://www.ncin.org.uk/publications/data_briefings/rurality.

Nauriyal DK, Negi NS, Gairola RK. Migration, Gender and Home Economics in Rural North India. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.; 2019.

Gupta M, Dahiya J, Marwaha RK, Dureja H. Therapies in cancer treatment: An overview. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:1-9.

Albert PR. Why is depression more prevalent in women? J Psychiatry Neurosci 2015;40:219.

Chaturvedi SK. Psychiatric oncology: Cancer in mind. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54:111.



How to Cite

Anupozu, R. “EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN CANCER PATIENTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 13, no. 10, Oct. 2020, pp. 41-43, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.38705.



Original Article(s)