Objective: Antifungal activity of total ethanolic extract and fractions of Usnea varieties were proved against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus nigricans fungi. Methods: To perform the study of relative antifungal activity (AFR), flu

  • DAYANNA CABRA GACHA Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas. Facultad de Ciencias y Educación, Bogotá, Colombia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9915-5816
  • LUIS POMBO OSPINA Fundación Universitaria Juan N. Corpas, Centro de investigación (GIFVTA) Bogotá, Colombia.
  • JANETH ARIAS PALACIOS Department of Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology Program, Industrial Environmental and Biotechnology Research Group, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.
  • OSCAR RODRÍGUEZ AGUIRRE Environmental Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Research Group CHOC-IZONE, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.

Abstract

Objective: Antifungal activity of total ethanolic extract and fractions of Usnea varieties were proved against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus nigricans fungi.


Methods: To perform the study of relative antifungal activity (AFR), fluconazole and ketoconazole were used as standards. The inhibition coefficient 50 (IC50) for each extract and the fractions was determined.


Results: It was established that the highest activity was presented by the acetone fraction with a value of 58.53. In the study of antifungal activity, the fraction that presented the best activity against P. digitatum was ethanolic with a value of 44.33, while for R. nigricans was petrol extract, with a value of 75.35 and finally for A. niger was the total extract with a value of 35.48.


Conclusions: Comparing the values obtained from the extract and the different fractions resulted in the dichloromethane fraction showing the best values.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Rhizopus nigricans, Relative antifungal activity AFR, Usnea varieties

References

1. Hassan M, Habib H, Kausar N, Ma Z, Mir RA. Evaluation of root and leaf of Abutilon theophrasti medik for antifungal activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:75-7.
2. Ahmadjian VH. Lichens are more important than you think. Bioscience 1995;45:123-4.
3. Branquinho C, Catarino F, Brown DH, Pereira MJ, Soares A. Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution. Sci Total Environ 1999;232:67-77.
4. Gulluce M, Aslan A, Sokmen M, Sahin F, Adiguzel A, Agar G, et al. Screening the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the lichens Parmelia saxatilis, Platismatia glauca, Ramalina pollinaria, Ramalina polymorpha and Umbilicaria nylanderiana. Phytomedicine 2006;13:515-21.
5. Ramya K, Thirunalasundari T. A study on epiphytic lichens from Prunus persica. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:118-23.
6. Rankovi? B, Miši? M, Sukdolak S. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Parmelia caperata, Parmelia pertusa, Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria polyphylla. Biologia 2009;64:53-8.
7. Okuyama E, Umeyama K, Yamazaki M, Kinoshita Y, Yamamoto Y. Usnic acid and diffractaic acid as analgesic and antipyretic components of Usnea diffracta. Planta Med 1995;61:113-5.
8. Fernández-Morian C, Divakar PK, Crespo A, Gómez-Serranillos MP. Protective effects of lichen metabolites evernic and usnic acids against redox impairment-mediated cytotoxicity in central nervous system-like cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2017;105:262-77.
9. Zelada BR, Pastor De Abram A. Estudio fitoquímico de Usnea durietzii mot. Rev Soc Quim Perú 2012;78:264-76.
10. Castro Mandujano ON. Aislamiento del ácido úsnico de Flavoparmelia caperata y su determinación cuantitativa por espectroscopía UV, en diez líquenes. Rev Soc Quím Perú 2010;76:389-99.
11. Narvaez Correa M, Rodríguez Aguirre OE, Arias Palacios J. Antimicrobial activity of Hymenaea courbaril L. fruit. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:200-3.
12. Arias Palacios J, Peña Carranza L, Torres Niño NP, Rodríguez Aguirre OE. Assessment of antimicrobial activity in Diplostephium phylicoides and Diplostephium revolutum extracts by plates and wells method. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:219-23.
13. Rodríguez OE, Diaz FE, Andrade WA. Antioxidant activity of lichens in the upper basin of the Bogotá river. J Technol 2014;13:61-6.
14. Zugic A, Jeremic I, Isakovic A, Arsic I, Savic S, Tadic V. Evaluation of anticancer and antioxidant activity of a commercially available CO2 supercritical extract of old man’s beard (Usnea barbata). PLoS One 2016;8:e0146342.
15. Gangwar KK, Deepali GR, Gangwar RS. Ethnomedicinal plant diversity in Kumaun Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. Nat Sci 2010;8:66-78.
16. Sukandar EY, Fidrianny I, Susanto E, Safitri D. The study of antifungal activity from indigenous plants from Indonesia: An in vitro study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:196-201.
17. Kambizi L, Afolayan AJ. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (njovhera) in Guruve District, Zimbabwe. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;77:5-9.
18. Prateeksha M, Paliya BS, Bajpai R, Jadaun V, Kumar J, Kumar S, et al. The genus Usnea: A potent phytomedicine with multifarious ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. RSC Adv 2016;6:21672-96.
19. Rodriguez OE, Andrade WA, Diaz FE, Moncada B. Antimicrobial activity of lichens in the upper basin of Bogotá river. NOVA 2015;13:65-72.
20. Mastan A, Sreedevi B, Kumari JP. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites produced from lichens. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:193-8.
21. Ghate NB, Chaudhuri D, Sarkar R, Sajem AL, Panja S, Rout J, et al. An antioxidant extract of tropical lichen, Parmotrema reticulatum, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. PLoS One 2013;8:e82293.
Statistics
21 Views | 19 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
GACHA, D. C., L. P. OSPINA, J. A. PALACIOS, and O. R. AGUIRRE. “Objective: Antifungal Activity of Total Ethanolic Extract and Fractions of Usnea Varieties Were Proved Against Aspergillus Niger, Penicillium Digitatum, and Rhizopus Nigricans Fungi. Methods: To Perform the Study of Relative Antifungal Activity (AFR), Flu”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 10, Aug. 2020, pp. 171-4, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.38962.
Section
Original Article(s)