• BHARGAVI NEELA Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D), Intern at Clinosol Research Pvt. Limited, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
  • SHIRISHA JAKKULA Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D), Intern at Clinosol Research Pvt. Limited, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
  • MUJEEBUDDIN Founder and CEO of Clinosol Research Pvt. Limited, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
  • RAVINDRA PRATAP GAUR Associate Manager, Clinical Operations-Covance, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged at Wuhan in China in December 2019 and has rapidly spread throughout the world. The droplets expelled during face-to-face exposure, mainly through talking, coughing, or sneezing, are the most common mode of transmission. So far, children have not been affected frequently without deaths. However, the course of this virus in the future is unknown. The diagnosis is mainly made through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serology testing. Treatment with dexamethasone at an early phase of developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 alters the pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response and decreases mortality. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with a sizable reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital mortality. One of the major risk factor associated with corticosteroid therapy is associated with acquiring secondary infections. Pulmonary epithelial damage and inflammatory disease are the predisposing risk factors for pulmonary aspergillosis due to the release of danger molecular patterns during severe COVID-19. Galactomannan and culture testing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are the most sensitive diagnostic measures for aspergillosis in intensive care unit (ICU). Finally, the treatment of coronavirus associated pulmonary aspergillosis is complex. The only way one can prevent the spread of infection by following precautions such as frequent hand washing, wearing a mask in public places, social distancing, and by avoiding unnecessary gatherings.

Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019, SARS-CoV-2, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Dexamethasone, Pulmonary aspergillosis


1. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514-23.
2. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol 2020;92:401-2.
3. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human corona viruses. J Adv Res 2020;24:91-8.
4. Zhong NS, Zheng BJ, Li YM, Poon LL, Xie ZH, Chan KH, et al. Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong, people’s republic of China, in February, 2003. Lancet 2003;362:1353-8.
5. Wang N, Shi X, Jiang L, Zhang S, Wang D, Tong P, et al. Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4. Cell Res 2013;23:986-93.
6. Masters PS. The molecular biology of corona viruses. Adv Virus Res 2006;66:193-292.
7. Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:130.
8. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 2020;395:565-74.
9. Zhou P, Lou YX, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020;579:270-3.
10. Boni MF, Lemey P, Jiang X, Lam TT, Perry B, Castoe T, et al. Evolutionary origins of the SARS-CoV-2 sarbecovirus lineage responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Microbiol 2020;5: 1408-17.
11. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from:
12. Havers FP, Reed C, Lim T, Montgomery JM, Klena JD, Hall AJ, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 sites in the United States, March 23-May 12, 2020. JAMA Intern Med 2020;2020:4130.
13. Mantovani A, Rinaldi E, Zusi C, Beatrice G, Saccomani MD, Dalbeni A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and/or adolescents: A meta-analysis. Pediatr Res 2020;2020:1015.
14. Zaigham M, Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: A systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020;99:823-9.
15. Mahase E. China coronavirus: What do we know so far? BMJ 2020;368:m308.
16. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Balbin-Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Sah R, Paniz-Mondolfi A, et al. History is repeating itself: Probable zoonotic spillover as the cause of the 2019 novel Coronavirus Epidemic. Infez Med 2020;28:3-5.
17. Lam TT, Shum MH, Zhu HC, Tong YG, Ni XB, Liao YS. Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature 2020;583:282-5.
18. Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2020;395:1973-87.
19. Chia PY, Coleman KK, Tan YK, Ong SW, Gum M, Lau SK, et al. Detection of air and surface contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms of infected patients. Nat Commun 2020;11:2800.
20. Riddell S, Goldie S, Hill A, Eagles D, Drew TW. The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Virol J 2020;17:145.
21. Lewis D. Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree. Nature 2020;580:175.
22. Leclerc QJ, Fuller NM, Knight LE, Funk S, Knight GM, CMMID COVID-19 Working Group. What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters? Wellcome Open Res 2020;5:83.
23. Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1564-7.
24. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020;382:970-1.
25. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: A retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020;395:809-15.
26. Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application. Ann Int Med 2020;172:577-82.
27. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19). Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
28. Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses 2012;4:1011-33.
29. Yang N, Shen HM. Targeting the endocytic pathway and autophagy process as a novel therapeutic strategy in COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 2020;16:1724-31.
30. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 2020;181:271-80.e8.
31. Zou L, Ruan F, Huang M, Liang L, Huang H, Hong Z, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1177-9.
32. Tang NL, Chan PK, Wong CK, To KF, Wu AK, Sung YM, et al. Early enhanced expression of interferon-inducible protein-10 (CXCL- 10) and other chemokines predicts adverse outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Chem 2005;51:2333-40.
33. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:420-2.
34. Goyal P, Choi JJ, Pinheiro LC, Schenck EJ, Chen R, Jabri A, et al. Clinical characteristics of Covid-19 in New York city. N Engl J Med 2020;382:2372-4.
35. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1708-20.
36. Cheung KS, Hung IF, Chan PP, Lung KC, Tso E, Liu R, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus load in fecal samples from the Hong Kong cohort and systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2020;159:81-95.
37. Yuki K, Fujiogi M, Koutsogiannaki S. COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review. Clin Immunol 2020;215:108427.
38. Young BE, Ong SW, Kalimuddin S, Low JG, Tan SY, Loh J, et al. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020;323:1488-94.
39. People with Certain Medical Conditions. Available from: https://www. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].
40. Barnkob MB, Pottegard A, Støvring H, Haunstrup TM, Homburg K, Larsen R, et al. Reduced prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ABO blood group O. Blood Adv 2020;4:4990-3.
41. WangW, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA 2020;323: 1843-4.
42. Li G, Lili R, Siyuan Y, Meng X, De C, Fan Y, et al. Profiling early humoral response to diagnose novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Clin Infect Dis 2020;71:778-85.
43. Bond K, Nicholson MS, Hoang MT, Catton M, Howden B, Williamson D, et al. Evaluation of serological tests for SARS-CoV-2: Implications for serology testing in a low-prevalence setting. J Infect Dis 2020;222:1280-8.
44. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Peña R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, et al. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020;34:101623.
45. Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:425-34.
46. Mao R, Qiu Y, He JS, Tan JY, Li XH, Liang J, et al. Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020;5:667-78.
47. Long B, Brady WJ, Koyfman A, Gottlieb M. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 Am J Emerg Med 2020;38:1504-7.
48. Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, Hu Y, Chen S, He Q, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020;77:1-9.
49. Clinical Management Protocol: COVID-19. Available from: https:// pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 29].
50. Wu CN, Xia LZ, Li KH, Ma WH, Yu DN, Qu B, et al. High-flow nasal-oxygenation-assisted fibreoptic tracheal intubation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A prospective randomised controlled trial. Br J Anaesth 2020;125:e166-8.
51. Kowalewski M, Fina D, S?omka A, Raffa GM, Martucci G, Lo Coco V, et al. COVID-19 and ECMO: The interplay between coagulation and inflammation a narrative review. Crit Care 2020;24:205.
52. Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Boehmer S, Beigelman A, Fitzpatrick AM, et al. Early administration of azithromycin and prevention of severe lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with a history of such illnesses: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015;314:2034-44.
53. Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, Götte M. Mechanism of inhibition of Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by remdesivir. Viruses 2019;11:326.
54. Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, Mehta AK, Zingman BS, Kalil AC, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2020;383:1813-26.
55. Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, et al. A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1787-99.
56. World Health Organization. Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for COVID-19; Interim WHO SOLIDARITY Trial Results. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 16].
57. FabiFlu: India’s First COVID-19 Drug Launched, Priced at Rs 103 per Tablet. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 29].
58. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA 2020;323:1824-36.
59. Alzghari SK, Acuna VS. Supportive treatment with tocilizumab for COVID-19: A systematic review. J Clin Virol 2020;127:104380.
60. Buonaguro FM, Puzanov I, Ascierto PA. Anti-IL6R role in treatment of COVID-19-related ARDS. J Transl Med 2020;18:6.
61. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends 2020 14:72-3.
62. Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis 2020;71: 732-9.
63. Mahévas M, Tran VT, Roumier M, Chabrol A, Paule R, Guillaud C, et al. Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: Observational comparative study using routine care data. BMJ 2020;369:m1844.
64. Q&A: Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19. Available from: https:// 19?gclid=Cj0KCQjw8rT8BRCbARIsALWiOvQQWI0XvASn qP-N6dSY_NNro0sgRNazxvL0vtd-iNlFI4FavdeaeXQaAvQbEALw_ wcB#. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 28].
65. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.
66. Available from: who-welcomes-preliminary results about-dexamethasone-use-in-treating-critically-ill-COVID-19-patients. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 22].
67. RECOVERY Collaborative Group; Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL, et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2020;2020:NEJMoa2021436.
68. Sterne JA, Murthy S, Diaz JV, Slutsky AS, Villar J, Angus DC, et al. Association between administration of systemic corticosteroids and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19: A meta-analysis. JAMA. 2020;324:1-13.
69. Ye Z, Wang Y, Colunga-Lozano LE, Prasad M, Tangamornsuksan W, Rochwerg B, et al. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 based on evidence for COVID-19, other coronavirus infections, influenza, community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J 2020;192:E756-67.
70. Rochwerg B, Oczkowski SJ, Siemieniuk RA, Agoritsas T, Belley- Cote E, D’Aragon F, et al. Corticosteroids in sepsis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2018;46:1411-20.
71. Dagens A, Sigfrid L, Cai E, Lipworth S, Cheung V, Harris E, et al. Scope, quality, and inclusivity of clinical guidelines produced early in the covid-19 pandemic: Rapid review. BMJ 2020;369:m1936.
72. Thachil J, Tang N, Gando S, Falanga A, Cattaneo M, Levi M, et al. ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost 2020;18:1023-6.
73. Leng Z, Zhu R, Hou W, Feng Y, Yang Y, Han Q, et al. Transplantation of ACE2-mesenchymal stem cells improves the outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Aging Dis 2020;11:216-28.
74. Gupta PS, Rana MK. Ivermectin, famotidine, and doxycycline: A suggested combinatorial therapeutic for the treatment of COVID-19. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020;3:1037-8.
75. Akaberi D, Krambrich J, Ling J, Luni C, Hedenstierna G, Järhult JD, et al. Mitigation of the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by nitric oxide in vitro. Redox biol 2020;37:101734.
76. Kumar A, Chordia N. Bacterial resistance against antibiotics. In: Arora G, Sajid A, Kalia V, editors. Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. Cham: Springer; 2017. p. 171-92.
77. Jamieson AM, Yu S, Annicelli CH, Medzhitov R. Influenza virus-induced glucocorticoids compromise innate host defense against a secondary bacterial infection. Cell Host Microbe 2010;7:103-14.
78. Zhang H, Zhang Y, Wu J, Li Y, Zhou X, Li X, et al. Risks and features of secondary infections in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020;9:1958-64.
79. Schwartz IS, Friedman DZ, Zapernick L, Dingle TC, Lee N, Sligl W, et al. High rates of influenza-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis may not be universal: A retrospective cohort study from Alberta, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71:1760-3.
80. Binder RE, Faling LJ, Pugatch RD, Mahasaen C, Snider GL. Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: A discrete clinical entity. Medicine 1982;61:109-24.
81. Schauwvlieghe AF, Rijnders BJ, Philips N, Verwijs R, Vanderbeke L, Van Tienen C, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe influenza: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 2018;6:782-92.
82. Wang J, Yang Q, Zhang P, Sheng J, Zhou J, Qu T. Clinical characteristics of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China: A retrospective case series. Crit Care 2020;24:1-4.
83. Chindamporn A, Chakrabarti A, Li R, Sun PL, Tan BH, Chua M, et al. Survey of laboratory practices for diagnosis of fungal infection in seven Asian countries: An Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) initiative. Med Mycol 2017;56:416-25.
84. Koehler P, Cornely OA, Böttiger BW, Dusse F, Eichenauer DA, Fuchs F, et al. COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Mycoses 2020;63:528-34.
85. Arkel AL, Rijpstra TA, Belderbos HN, van Wijngaarden P, Verweij PE, BentvelsenRG. COVID-19 Associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;202:132-5.
86. Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet 2020;395:473-5.
87. Hotez PJ. Linking tropical infections to hypertension: New comorbid disease paradigms in our era of “blue marble health”. J Am Heart Assoc 2019;8:e03984.
88. Spagnolo P, Balestro E, Aliberti S, Cocconcelli E, Biondini D, Casa GD, et al. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to COVID-19: A call to arms? Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:750-2.
89. Van De Veerdonk FL, Gresnigt MS, Romani L, Netea MG, Latge JP. Aspergillus fumigatus morphology and dynamic host interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol 2017;15:661-74.
90. Tolle LB, Standiford TJ. Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in acute lung injury. J Pathol 2013;229:145-56.
91. Cunha C, Carvalho A, Esposito A, Bistoni F, Romani L. DAMP signaling in fungal infections and diseases. Front Immunol 2012;3:286.
92. Sorci G, Giovannini G, Riuzzi F, Bonifazi P, Zelante T, Zagarella S, et al. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen-and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. PLoS Pathog 2011;7:e1001315.
93. Borger P, Koëter GH, Timmerman JA, Vellenga E, Tomee JF, Kauffman HF. Proteases from Aspergillus fumigatus induce interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 producin in airway epithelial cell lines by transcriptional mechanisms. J Infect Dis 1999;180:1267-74.
94. Netea MG, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Domínguez-Andrés J, Curtis N, van Crevel R, van de Veerdonk FL, et al. Trained immunity: A tool for reducing susceptibility to and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cell 2020;181:969-77.
95. Arastehfar A, Wickes BL, Ilkit M, Pincus DH, Daneshnia F, Pan W, et al. Identification of mycoses in developing countries. J Fungi 2019;5:90.
96. Rutsaert L, Steinfort N, Van Hunsel T, Bomans P, Naesens R, Mertes H, et al. COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Ann. Intensive Care 2020;10:1-4.
97. Wahidi MM, Lamb C, Murgu S, Musani A, Shojaee S, Sachdeva A, et al. American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP) statement on the use of bronchoscopy and respiratory specimen collection in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2020;27:e52-4.
98. Ullmann AJ, Aguado JM, Arikan-Akdagli S, Denning DW, Groll AH, Lagrou K, et al. Diagnosis and management of Aspergillus diseases: Executive summary of the 2017 ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guideline. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018;24:e1-38.
99. Baniasadi S, Farzanegan B, Alehashem M. Important drug classes associated with potential drug-drug interactions in critically ill patients: Highlights for cardiothoracic intensivists. Ann Intens Care 2015;5:44.
100. Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, Fishman JA, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2016;63:e1-60.
101. Jenks JD, Salzer HJ, Prattes J, Krause R, Buchheidt D, Hoenigl M. Spotlight on isavuconazole in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis: Design, development, and place in therapy. Drug Des Dev Ther 2018;12:1033-44.
102. Puelles VG, Lütgehetmann M, Lindenmeyer MT, Sperhake JP, Wong MN, Allweiss L, et al. Multiorgan and renal tropism of SARS-CoV-2. N Engl J Med 2020;383:590-2.
103. Takano T, Akiyama M, Doki T, Hohdatsu T. Antiviral activity of itraconazole against type I feline coronavirus infection. Vet Res 2019;50:5.
104. Nield B, Larsen SR, van Hal SJ. Clinical experience with new formulation SUBA®-itraconazole for prophylaxis in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation or treatment for haematological malignancies. J Antimicrob Chemother 2019;74:3049-55.
105. Wiederhold NP, Locke JB, Daruwala P, Bartizal K. Rezafungin (CD101) demonstrates potent in vitro activity against Aspergillus, including azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates and cryptic species. J Antimicrob Chemother 2018;73:3063-7.
106. Dias LD, Blanco KC, Bagnato VS. COVID-19: Beyond the virus. The use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of infections in the respiratory tract. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020;31:101804.
107. World Health Organization. Consideration in the Investigation of Cases and Clusters of COVID-19: Intern Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. handle/10665/331668.License:CCBY-NC-SA3.0IGOYu. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 02].
108. Yu P, Zhu J, Zhang Z, Han Y. A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating possible person-to-person transmission during the incubation period. J Infect Dis 2020;221: 1757-61.
109. World Health Organization. Advice on the Use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19: Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: handle/10665/332293. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 05].
110. Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic; 2020. Available from: coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control-recommendations. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].
111. Social Stigma associated with COVID-19. Available from: https://
112. Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, Yang Y, Li J, Yuan J, et al. Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. JAMA 2020;323:1582-9.
113. Long QX, Tang XJ, Shi QL, Li Q, Deng HJ, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat Med 2020;26:1200-4.
114. Robbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JC, Wang Z, Cho A, et al. Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in convalescent individuals. bioRxiv 2020;584:437-42.
115. Zhu FC, Li YH, Guan XH, Hou LH, Wang WJ, Li JX, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus Type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: A dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. Lancet 2020;395:1845-54.
116. Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, Ramirez SI, Mateus J, Dan JM, Moderbacher CR, et al. Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals. Cell 2020;181:1489-501.e15.
117. To KK, Hung IF, Ip JD, Chu AW, Chan WM, Tam AR, et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis 2020;2020:ciaa1275.
118. Findings from Investigation and Analysis of re-positive Cases. Available from: es?mid=&bid=0030&act=view&list_no=367267&nPage=1. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 01].
119. Iwasaki A. What reinfections mean for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;2020:30783.
168 Views | 89 Downloads
How to Cite
NEELA, B., S. JAKKULA, MUJEEBUDDIN, and R. PRATAP GAUR. “CORTICOSTEROIDS AND SECONDARY INFECTIONS: AN INSIGHT INTO CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 36-47, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i1.40096.
Review Article(s)